Levels of Organization (cell to organism)


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Levels of Organization (cell to organism)

  1. 1. Levels of Organization
  2. 2. Life’s Organization • All matter is made of atoms. Atoms combine and form molecules. Molecules make up cells. Cells make up organisms. • Some organisms are made of only one cell. These unicellular organisms carry out all the activities necessary to survive. • No matter their sizes, all organisms are made of cells.
  3. 3. All Organisms are made of cells
  4. 4. All Organisms are made of cells
  5. 5. Unicellular Organisms • Unicellular organisms have only one cell. • These organisms do all the things needed for their survival within that one cell. • An amoeba is a unicellular organism. It takes in, or ingests, other unicellular organisms for food to get energy. • Unicellular organisms also respond to their environment, get rid of waste, grow, and reproduce. Unicellular organisms include both prokaryotes and some eukaryotes.
  6. 6. Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells
  7. 7. Prokaryotic Cells • A cell without a membrane-bound nucleus is a prokaryotic cell. • In general, prokaryotic cells are smaller than eukaryotic cells and also have fewer cell structures. • A unicellular organism made of one prokaryotic cell is called a prokaryote. • Some prokaryotes live in groups called colonies. • Some can also live in extreme environments. The heat-loving bacteria that live in hot springs get their energy from sulfur instead of light.
  8. 8. Prokaryotic Cells
  9. 9. Eukaryotic Cells • A eukaryotic cell has a nucleus surrounded by a membrane and many specialized organelles. • A unicellular organism that is made of one eukaryotic cell is called a eukaryote. There are thousands of different unicellular eukaryotes. • The alga that grows on the inside of an aquarium and the fungus that causes athlete’s foot are unicellular eukaryotes.
  10. 10. Multicellular Organisms • A multicellular organism is made of many eukaryotic cells working together. • Each type of cell in a multicellular organism has a specific job that is important to the survival of the organism.
  11. 11. Cell Differentiation • All cells in a multicellular organism come from one cell, a fertilized egg. • Cell division starts quickly after fertilization. • The first cells made can become any type of cell, such as a muscle cell, a nerve cell, or a blood cell. • The process by which cells become different types of cells is called cell differentiation.
  12. 12. Multicellular Organisms
  13. 13. Cell Differentiation • A cell’s instructions are contained in its chromosomes. • Nearly all the cells in an organism have identical sets of chromosomes. • If an organism’s cells have identical sets of instructions, how can the cells be different? • Different cell types use different parts of the instructions on the chromosomes.
  14. 14. Animal Stem Cells • Not all cells in a developing animal differentiate. • Stem cells are unspecified cells that are able to develop into many different cell types. • There are many stem cells in embryos but fewer in adult organisms. • Adult stem cells are important for cell repair and replacement. • For example, stem cells in your blood marrow can produce more than a dozen different types of blood cells. These replace the cells that are damaged or worn out. • Stem cells in your muscles can produce new muscle cells. These can replace torn muscle fibers.
  15. 15. Plant Stem Cells • Plants also have unspecialized cells, similar to the stem cells of animals. These cells are grouped in areas called meristems. • Meristems are in different areas of a plant, including the tips of roots and stems. • Cell division in meristems produces different types of plant cells with specialized structures and functions. • These functions include transporting materials, making and storing food, or protecting the plant. • Meristem cells might become part of stems, leaves, flowers, or roots.
  16. 16. Plant Stem Cells
  17. 17. Tissues Animals • In multicellular organisms, similar types of cells are organized into groups. • Tissues are groups of similar types of cells that work together to carry out specific tasks. • Most animals, including humans, have four main types of tissues.
  18. 18. • • • • Tissues Animals Muscle tissue makes movement possible. Connective tissue provides structure and support. Nervous tissue carries messages to and from the brain. Epithelial tissue forms the protective outer layer of skin and the lining of major organs and internal body cavities.
  19. 19. Tissues Plants • Plants also have different types of tissues. • The three main types of plant tissue are: • Dermal tissue provides protection and helps reduce water loss. • Vascular tissue transports water and nutrients from one part of a plant to another. • Ground tissue provides storage and support. Photosynthesis takes place in ground tissue.
  20. 20. Organs Animals • Complex jobs in organisms require more than one type of tissue. • Organs are groups of different tissues working together to perform a particular job. • Your stomach is an organ that breaks down food. It is made of all four types of tissue. Each type of tissue performs a specific function necessary for the stomach to work properly and break down food.
  21. 21. Organs Animals • Muscle tissue contracts and breaks up food. • Epithelial tissue lines the stomach. • Nervous tissue signals when the stomach is full. • Connective tissue supports the stomach wall.
  22. 22. Organs Plants • Plants also have organs. • A leaf is an organ specialized for photosynthesis. • Each leaf is made of dermal tissue, ground tissue, and vascular tissue.
  23. 23. Organs Plants • Dermal tissue covers the outer surface of a leaf. • Ground tissue is where photosynthesis takes place. The ground tissue is tightly packed on the top half of the leaf. • The vascular tissue moves both the food produced by photosynthesis and water throughout the leaf and plant.
  24. 24. Organ Systems Animals • Most organs do not function alone. Instead, organ systems are groups of different organs that work together to complete a series of tasks. • Human organ systems can be made of many different organs working together.
  25. 25. Organ Systems Animals • For example, the digestive system is made of the stomach, the small intestine, the liver, and the large intestine. These organs all work together to break down food. Blood absorbs and transports nutrients from food to cells throughout the body.
  26. 26. Organ Systems Plants • Plants have two main organ systems—the shoot system and the root system. • The shoot system includes leaves, stems, and flowers. The shoot system transports food and water throughout the plant. • The root system anchors the plant and takes in water and nutrients.
  27. 27. Organisms us :) • Multicellular organisms usually have many organ systems. The cells of these systems work together and carry out all the jobs needed for the organism to survive. • There are many organ systems in the human body. Each organ system depends on the others and cannot work alone. • For example, the respiratory system and circulatory system carry oxygen to the cells of the muscle tissue of the stomach. The oxygen aids in the survival of muscle tissue cells.
  28. 28. Organisms us :) • For example, the respiratory system and circulatory system carry oxygen to the cells of the muscle tissue of the stomach. The oxygen aids in the survival of muscle tissue cells.