LCE13: Android Graphics Upstreaming


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Resource: LCE13
Name: Android Graphics Upstreaming
Date: 09-07-2013

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LCE13: Android Graphics Upstreaming

  1. 1. Android Graphics Upstreaming Linaro Connect Europe 2013
  2. 2. 2 Overview ● Covering – ION – Sync – KMS/HWComposer ● Hoping for active discussion
  3. 3. 3 Disclosure I'm not a DMA expert, nor am I all that familiar with details around graphics I'm likely to be wrong in more then one place
  4. 4. 4 ION
  5. 5. 5 What is the issue ION solves? ● Provides a way to allocate buffers so that they can be shared between different hardware devices (via DMA) to avoid copying ● Different devices have different constraints – Physically contiguous memory – Smaller memory aperture (32bit device accessing LPAE/64bit memory) – Different pagetable sizes ● Provides a method to select type of buffer that satisfies the constraints ● While mostly used for graphics, ION is not graphics specific
  6. 6. 6 ???? Would contrived cartoon examples help?
  7. 7. 7
  8. 8. 8 CPU full virtual and physical addressing
  9. 9. 9 GPU supports full memory range + scatter/gather
  10. 10. 10 Camera is 32bit, and can only do DMA to physically contiguous memory
  11. 11. 11 Crypto engine only supports 32bits, but does support scatter/gather
  12. 12. 12 MMC supports full memory range, but only contiguous physical memory
  13. 13. 13 Virtual allocation
  14. 14. 14 Resulting physical allocation
  15. 15. 15 kmalloc for physically contiguous allocation
  16. 16. 16 CMA allows kernel to make space for contiguously physical allocations
  17. 17. 17 Carveout memory is physically contiguous memory reserved at boot
  18. 18. 18 ION interface ● Provides way for userland to allocate buffers from various “pools of memory” (aka: heaps) – SYSTEM: Virtually contiguous (vmalloc) – SYSTEM_CONTIG: Small physically contiguous (kmalloc) – CARVEOUT: Large reserved physically contiguous – CHUNK: Carveout + large page tables – CUSTOM: Whatever hardware vendors want (ick) – CMA: Sometime in the future?
  19. 19. 19 ION Interface (cont) ● Allows freeing, mapping and passing of those buffers to other applications and drivers – Buffers shared as file descriptors
  20. 20. 20 Using our examples ● CPU + GPU: SYSTEM ● CPU + MMC: SYSTEM_CONTIG ● CPU + CAMERA: CARVEOUT ● CPU + GPU + CAMERA: CARVEOUT ● CPU + GPU + MMC: SYSTEM_CONTIG ● Note: ION does not help calculate what the proper heap is for the given combination of hardware. It just provides userland an interface to specify a heap that userland knows satisfies the hardware constraints
  21. 21. 21 ION developer priorities ● Android developers very focused on avoiding “jank” - frame drops, jerky animations ● Want very deterministic behavior – They worry about CMA since it may spend a variable amount of time to move memory on a large allocation – Delayed constraint-solving dma-buf allocation ideas are similarly not considered viable (by Android devs) ● Want to centralize as much logic as possible in ION core, so any optimizations can be made once in the core infrastructure – Avoid lots of per-driver tweaking
  22. 22. 22 Isn't this what dma-buf does? ● ION pre-dates dma-buf ● dma-buf provides a subset of what ION does ● dma-buf is more of a encapsulation structure for buffers of different types – Allows buffers to be passed between different drivers and userland – Basically a marshaling structure – Does not specify how the buffers are allocated ● ION also has its own buffer encapsulation structure – ION added support to export dmabufs (sort of)
  23. 23. 23 Isn't this what CMA does? ● Again: Sort of. ● CMA allows for large physically contiguous memory allocations by migrating memory to make room for the large allocation ● Pros: – Avoids wasting memory with carveouts if they aren't in use. – CMA has pluggable allocators and options that can allow for allocations that satisfy the constraints needed. ● Cons: – CMA is kernel-internal only for now, and doesn't have a interface to allow userland to allocate buffers or specify constraint options – Migrating pages to make room can cause non-deterministic delays. Android developers want deterministic behavior. ● Patches to support CMA via ION have been submitted by Benjamin Gaignard (Android developer plan on accepting them).
  24. 24. 24 What about TTM, GEM and PRIME? You are now in the acronym pit of despair! DRM, DRI, DRI2, EXA, UXA, GEM, TTM, UMA, GTT
  25. 25. 25 What about TTM, GEM? ● TTM: Graphics memory manager for discrete gpus that have their own video-ram. – Considered complicated / poorly documented – Provides fence synchronization facility ● GEM: More minimal approach to TTM – Developed by Intel, focused on their hardware – Limited to UMA devices (ie: integrated graphics) – No synchronization (fence) primitives ● Those have to be implemented w/ driver-specific ioctls – Allows for sharing of buffers between applications by named ids ● GEM-ified TTM: TTM backend w/ GEM API
  26. 26. 26 What about PRIME? ● PRIME: GEM extended to use file descriptors for passing object references/buffers between drivers and userland – Uses dmabuf for passing buffers around – Required for “hybrid graphics” where there are multiple gpu (discrete and integrated) working together.
  27. 27. 27 Issues with ION ● Doesn't build on non 32-bit ARM architectures ● Quite a bit of DMA api misuse – Lots of ARM specific assumptions about DMA rules that aren't generically portable ● Exports kernel pointers to userland (makes compat_ioctl support difficult) ● Larger portability issue that applications have to understand the hardware buffer constraints in order to select the right heap to use – On different hardware, different heaps may be available, as well as different devices with different constraints – Same userland wouldn't necessarily work on different hardware
  28. 28. 28 DMA-API Misuse ● CPUs and Devices both cache memory – To keep coherency, we need to flush caches before initiating DMA – This requires a direction and a device ● ION pre sync's data, before knowing which device its going to. Leaves device value as NULL. Works for their uses – Broken for IOMMUs
  29. 29. 29 What is our plan with ION? ● Working w/ Android and ARM developers to address 32bit ARM assumptions ● Working with Arnd to try to sort out if we can address the dma-api misuse, or decide if new dma-apis are needed ● Try to come up with a way for the interface to expose less hardware specific detail – Query devices for an opaque heap-cookie they support, which could be OR-ed with other cookies to determine which heap to use for cross device buffers ● All of this may break current interface compatibility :( ● I suspect getting ION into staging is as good as it will get ● Other ideas?
  30. 30. 30 Sync
  31. 31. 31 What is Sync? ● Provides synchronization primitives that can be shared across processes ● Used mostly to synchronize both drivers and applications drawing to the screen ● Like a condition-wait variable, but can be backed by hardware primitives – Some gpus support hardware mutexes ● Provides lots of debugging data for sorting out synchronization issues ● In staging directory as of 3.10
  32. 32. 32 Sync Interface ● Timelines and fences – Applications set fences at specific points on timeline and wait struct sw_sync_create_fence_data data; data.value = fence_count ioctl(timeline_fd, SW_SYNC_IOC_CREATE_FENCE, &data); ioctl(data.fence, SYNC_IOC_WAIT, &timeout); – Controlling thread increments timeline, waking any processes waiting. ioctl(timeline_fd, SW_SYNC_IOC_INC, &count);
  33. 33. 33 What about Dmabuf-fences? ● Developed by Maarten Lankhorst, Daniel Vetter and Rob Clark ● Creates similar synchronization fences that are tied to specific dma-buf buffers ● Provides implicit synchronization – Android's Sync is explicit synchronization, requiring developers to add the logic ● Limited to dma-buf buffers – Android's Sync driver can be used in more varied contexts
  34. 34. 34 Daniel Vetter's take: “The fundamental difference between android syncpoints and the dma_buf fences is that syncpoints use explicit userspace synchronization objects which get passed around as fds. Whereas dma_buf fences are all implicitly attached to the respective dma_bufs, so userspace can just pass around the buffer object fds and the kernel ensures that magic happens and everything is synced up properly. Imo the later approach has two big upsides: - Implicit sync objects are a _much_ simpler programming model. Think synchronous file i/o vs. aio. And if the kernel doesn't suck, there's not really a performance disadvantage, at least for the shared buffer use-case. GL drivers might still need explicit syncing for their gpu state objects for the last ounce of performance, but that's not relevant. - Having fences attached directly to dma_buf objects is the only way to make dynamic buffers (i.e. eviction from garts/memory) possible. Currently every graphics driver on android seems to just pin their buffers into main memory so there's no need for that. And ion also only cares about pinned buffers. But I expect that this will change.”
  35. 35. 35 What about wait/wound-style mutexes? ● Also developed by Maarten Lankhorst and Daniel Vetter ● Developed to handle the case where buffers are shared between devices. Since buffers may not be ordered in the same way on all devices, there may be the possiblility for ABBA deadlocks ● Wait/wound style mutexes provide a global ticket (or context) which orders acquisitions. If a deadlock occurs, the oldest ticket holder waits for the mutex, while the younger holders have to “back off” and drop the locks they hold. ● Kernel driver interface only, not something userspace can use. ● I suspect this to be a base for dmabuf-fences ● Queued to be merged for 3.11
  36. 36. 36 What is our plan with Sync? ● Try to stir discussion between community and Android developers on explicit vs implicit synchronization issues ● Follow along to see if any part of the implementations can be shared ● Other ideas?
  37. 37. 37 KMS HWComposer
  38. 38. 38 What is KMS? ● Kernel Mode Setting ● Makes the kernel responsible for graphics mode (resolution, refresh, orientation) – Avoids races with userland and hardware – Can switch modes on OOPs to display message
  39. 39. 39 What is HWComposer? ● Per-platform userspace code that manages composition acceleration ● Part of the HAL layer ● Currently using fb ● Would be nice to convert HWComposer to KMS
  40. 40. 40 What is our plan with KMS/HWC/HAL? ● Android devs likely already working on KMS enabled HAL – Likely to be optimized specifically for next hardware release – Not likely to be generic KMS HAL ● Areas that may need work: – Sync and vsync notifications with KMS ● Hopefully this resolves the pageflipping framebuffer issue? – Gralloc allocates 2x y_res – Most fb drivers don't support this ● Other thoughts/ideas?
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