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Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008
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Philippine Poverty Situationer 2008

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This is a presentation I give to visiting Japanese students, thus the Yen values

This is a presentation I give to visiting Japanese students, thus the Yen values

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    • 1. Philippine Poverty Leland Joseph R. Dela Cruz Development Studies Program School of Social Sciences Ateneo de Manila University
    • 2. Outline of the Presentation <ul><li>Poverty Measurements </li></ul><ul><li>Causes of Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty Sectors </li></ul>
    • 3. Outline of the Presentation <ul><li>Poverty Measurements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Income Measures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception-based Measures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic Needs Measures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Causes of Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty Sectors </li></ul>
    • 4. When is a person considered poor? <ul><li>A poor person is someone who earns income below the official poverty line or poverty threshold. </li></ul><ul><li>The poverty line measures the income needed to obtain basic and non-basic needs for one year. </li></ul>
    • 5. How does the government compute for the poverty line? <ul><li>The government constructs a menu per region that satisfies basic nutritional requirements. The government computes for the cost of that menu. (ex. P43, Y104) </li></ul><ul><li>The government computes for the proportion of income that is budgeted for food using survey data. (ex. 66%) </li></ul><ul><li>The figure obtained in #1 is divided by the figure obtained in #2. (ex. P43 / 66% = P65, Y157) </li></ul>
    • 6. What is the NCR poverty line (2008)? P328.77 Y798.20 Family/ day* P10,000.00 Y24, 278.75 Family/ month P120,000.00 Y291,345 Family/ year* P65.76 Y159.64 Individual/ day* P2,000.00 Y4,855.75 Individual/ month* P24,000.00 Y58,269.00 Individual/ year* *Unofficial, self-computed
    • 7. What is the Philippine poverty line (2006)? P206.29 Y500.78 Family/ day* P6,273.99 Y15,232.08 Family/ month* P75,287.85 Y182,785.00 Family/ year* P41.26 Y100.15 Individual/ day* P1,254.80 Y3,046.41 Individual/ month* P15,057.57 Y36,557.00 Individual/ year NSCB *Unofficial, self-computed
    • 8. Poverty incidence 2006, NSCB <ul><li>32.9% or 27.6 million Filipinos are poor. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>32.9% of Filipinos earn less than P 15,057.57 a year (Y36,557), P 1,254.80 a month (Y3,046) and P 41.26 a day (Y100.15). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>26.9% or 4.6 million Filipino families are poor. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>26.9% of families earn less than P75,287.85 a year (Y182,705), P 6,273.99 a month (Y15,232.08) and P 206.29 a day (Y500.78). </li></ul></ul>
    • 9. Poorest Provinces (2006) NSCB Poverty Incidence Tawi-Tawi, Mindanao 78.9% Zamboanga del Norte, Mindanao 63.0% Maguindanao, Mindanao 62.0% Apayao, Northern Luzon 57.5% Surigao del Norte, Mindanao 53.2% Lanao del Sur, Mindanao 52.5% Northern Samar, Visayas 52.2% Masbate, Southern Luzon 51.0% Abra, Northern Luzon 50.1% Misamis Occidental, Mindanao 48.8%
    • 10. Least Poor Provinces (2006) NSCB Poverty Incidence Batanes, Northern Luzon 0% Rizal, Adjacent to NCR 6.4% Bataan, Luzon 6.8% Cavite, Adjacent to NCR 7.8% Benguet, Luzon 8.2% Pampanga, Adjacent to NCR 8.3% Bulacan, Adjacent to NCR 10.0% Laguna, Adjacent to NCR 10.6% Nueva Vizcaya, Luzon 12.7% Quirino, Luzon 15.9%
    • 11. Poverty trends NSCB
    • 12. Philippine Poverty Incidence: Families (Percentage) NSCB 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 1988 1991 1994 1997 2000 2003 %
    • 13. Philippine Poverty Incidence: Individuals (Percentage) NSCB 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 1988 1991 1994 1997 2000 2003 %
    • 14. Gini Coefficient Philippine data: UNDP, 2004 as cited in Wikipedia Country Gini ratio Country Gini ratio Denmark 0.247 Hong Kong 0.434 Japan 0.249 Philippines 0.445 Italy 0.360 Mexico 0.461 India 0.368 Guatemala 0.551 U.S.A. 0.408 Namibia 0.743
    • 15. Self-Rated Poverty Pulse-Asia June 2004 October 2004 March 2005 Philippines 70% 70% 70% Class ABC 37% 21% 35% Class D 68% 68% 69% Class E 84% 87% 82%
    • 16. Self-Rated Poverty Pulse-Asia June 2004 October 2004 March 2005 NCR 52% 41% 48% Luzon 69% 69% 66% Visayas 71% 82% 80% Mindanao 80% 79% 81% Rural 73% 83% 82% Urban 66% 57% 58%
    • 17. Self-Rated Poverty SWS
    • 18. Summary Official Statistics Perception-based measure Poverty Incidence 25% 50-70% Poverty threshold P6,273.99 (Y15,232) a month P10,000 (Y26,623) a month
    • 19. Access to basic needs Indicator % of population With access to safe drinking water 80.2% With sanitary toilet 86.2% With access to electricity 79.7% With own house and lot 64.9% With children 6-12 years old in elementary 91.2% With children 13-16 years old in high school 36.1%
    • 20. Informal Settlers <ul><li>Insecure living conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Insecure land tenure </li></ul><ul><li>Cramped living conditions </li></ul>
    • 21. Informal Settlers <ul><li>Inadequate Shelter </li></ul><ul><li>Inappropriate Living Conditions </li></ul>
    • 22. Outline of the Presentation <ul><li>Poverty Measurements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Income Measures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception-based Measures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic Needs Measures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Causes of Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty Sectors </li></ul>
    • 23. Outline of the Presentation <ul><li>Poverty Measurements </li></ul><ul><li>Causes of Poverty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inequality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak Human Capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absence of Employment Opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak Agricultural Sector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor Governance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Poverty Sectors </li></ul>
    • 24. Outline of the Presentation <ul><li>Poverty Measurements </li></ul><ul><li>Causes of Poverty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inequality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak Human Capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absence of Employment Opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak Agricultural Sector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor Governance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Poverty Sectors </li></ul>
    • 25. The Economy Has Been Growing
    • 26. The Economy Has Been Growing <ul><li>But poverty has not substantially decreased </li></ul><ul><li>This may be due to unequal benefits from economic growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unequal incomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unequal assets </li></ul></ul>
    • 27. Income Distribution 2006, NSO
    • 28. Income Distribution
    • 29. Income Distribution
    • 30. Unequal Asset Distribution: Land Distribution 449 Landowners 30 Landowners 50% of land area 50% of land area
    • 31. Land Distribution 449 Landowners 50% of land area 25% of land area 25% of land area 29 Landowners 1 Landowner
    • 32. Outline of the Presentation <ul><li>Poverty Measurements </li></ul><ul><li>Causes of Poverty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inequality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak Human Capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absence of Employment Opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak Agricultural Sector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor Governance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Poverty Sectors </li></ul>
    • 33. Inflation: Rice Prices
    • 34. Self-Rated Hunger
    • 35. Outline of the Presentation <ul><li>Poverty Measurements </li></ul><ul><li>Causes of Poverty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inequality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak Human Capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absence of Employment Opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak Agricultural Sector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor Governance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Poverty Sectors </li></ul>
    • 36. Inadequacies at the Elementary Level Source: Basic Education Information System, DepEd
    • 37. Inadequacies at the Secondary Level Source: Basic Education Information System, DepEd
    • 38. National Achievement Test Scores <ul><li>Elementary Average: 59.94% </li></ul><ul><li>High School Average: 46.64% </li></ul>
    • 39. Third International Math and Science Survey <ul><li>Grade 4 Test: Philippines ranked 3 rd lowest among 25 countries (Japan ranked 3 rd highest behind Singapore and Hong Kong) </li></ul><ul><li>Grade 8 Test: Philippines ranked 6 th lowest among 45 countries (Japan ranked 5 th highest behind Singapore, Korea, Hong Kong and Taiwan) </li></ul>
    • 40. Outline of the Presentation <ul><li>Poverty Measurements </li></ul><ul><li>Causes of Poverty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inequality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak Human Capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absence of Employment Opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak Agricultural Sector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor Governance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Poverty Sectors </li></ul>
    • 41. Health Personnel by Location Source: Dr. Merceditas Santos-Tuano, former Executive Director, Healthdev Institute Rural Urban Midwives ~30% ~60% Nurses ~20% ~80% Dentists ~10% ~90% Doctors 62% migrate to other countries ~10% ~90%
    • 42. Child Delivery Attendants (2003, NDHS)
    • 43. Child Delivery Attendants by Income Quintiles (2003, NDHS)
    • 44. Location of Child Delivery (2003, NDHS)
    • 45. Location of Child Delivery by Income Quintile (2003, NDHS)
    • 46. Outline of the Presentation <ul><li>Poverty Measurements </li></ul><ul><li>Causes of Poverty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inequality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak Human Capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absence of Employment Opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak Agricultural Sector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor Governance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Poverty Sectors </li></ul>
    • 47. More than 8 million Filipinos are working in other countries
    • 48. Destination of Overseas Filipino Workers
    • 49. Destination of Overseas Filipino Workers
    • 50. Employment Abroad
    • 51. Outline of the Presentation <ul><li>Poverty Measurements </li></ul><ul><li>Causes of Poverty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inequality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak Human Capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absence of Employment Opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak Agricultural Sector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor Governance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Poverty Sectors </li></ul>
    • 52. Outline of the Presentation <ul><li>Poverty Measurements </li></ul><ul><li>Causes of Poverty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inequality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak Human Capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absence of Employment Opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weak Agricultural Sector </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor Governance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Poverty Sectors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Landless Rural Workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indigenous People </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fisherfolk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small Farmers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microentrepreneurs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laborers </li></ul></ul>
    • 53. Landless Rural Farmers <ul><li>No productive assets of their own </li></ul><ul><li>Forced to sell their labor to work on other people’s farms </li></ul><ul><li>Land reform has not really helped </li></ul>
    • 54. Indigenous Peoples <ul><li>Official estimates at 12 million Filipinos </li></ul><ul><li>A large proportion are in Mindanao, Cordillera Autonomous Region </li></ul>
    • 55. Indigenous People <ul><li>Threats to Land Tenure </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of access to basic services </li></ul><ul><li>Internal Displacement </li></ul>
    • 56. Fisherfolk <ul><li>Environmental Degradation </li></ul><ul><li>Competition from Commercial Fishermen </li></ul>
    • 57. Fisherfolk <ul><li>Access to Credit </li></ul><ul><li>Access to Markets </li></ul>
    • 58. Microentrepreneurs <ul><li>Access to Credit </li></ul><ul><li>Access to Markets </li></ul><ul><li>Harassment </li></ul>
    • 59. Laborers <ul><li>Contractualization </li></ul><ul><li>Violations of Labor Standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Working conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Payment </li></ul></ul>
    • 60. Small owner cultivators <ul><li>Access to credit </li></ul><ul><li>Access to markets </li></ul>
    • 61. Outline of the Presentation <ul><li>Poverty Measurements </li></ul><ul><li>Causes of Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty Sectors </li></ul>
    • 62. Philippine Poverty Leland Joseph R. Dela Cruz Director, Development Studies Program Ateneo de Manila University

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