Social Exclusion Poverty

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Social Exclusion Poverty

  1. 1. Poverty as Social Exclusion Amartya Sen and the Evolution of the Concept of Poverty Leland Joseph R. de la Cruz Director, Development Studies Program
  2. 2. References <ul><li>Sen, Amartya (2000). Social Exclusion: Concept, Application and Scrutiny. Manila: Asian Development Bank </li></ul><ul><li>Rodger, Gore and Figueredo (1995). Rhetoric, Reality, Responses. Geneva: International Institute for Labor Studies. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Unemployment and Exclusion <ul><li>Skill loss: unlearning by not doing </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of bargaining power </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of self-esteem, self-confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological harm and misery </li></ul><ul><li>Ill-health and mortality </li></ul><ul><li>Disruptive of human relations </li></ul><ul><li>Discouragement </li></ul><ul><li>Breeds cynicism </li></ul>
  4. 4. Social Exclusion as a Universal Concept <ul><li>Poverty as a Third World phenomenon; social exclusion as a global phenomenon. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple sectors can be considered excluded. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Excluded Sectors <ul><li>Poverty groups </li></ul><ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><li>Disabled </li></ul>
  6. 6. Social Exclusion <ul><li>Inability to participate in the life of a community. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Forms of Exclusion <ul><li>Physical/ Geographic Exclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Exclusion </li></ul><ul><li>“Structural” Exclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Legal/ Political Exclusion </li></ul><ul><li>“Cultural” Exclusion </li></ul>
  8. 8. Social Exclusion <ul><li>Social Exclusion is a form of poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Social Exclusion is a cause of poverty </li></ul>
  9. 10. Cause of Poverty <ul><li>To be excluded is to be deprived of access to: </li></ul><ul><li>A source of entitlements </li></ul><ul><li>A source of information </li></ul><ul><li>A mechanism for reducing transactions costs </li></ul>
  10. 11. Addressing Social Exclusion <ul><li>Awareness and sensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>Empowerment of excluded groups </li></ul><ul><li>Creating spaces for inclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Structural adjustments </li></ul>
  11. 12. Addressing Social Exclusion <ul><li>Awareness and Sensitivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For cultural exclusion: recognition and celebration of differences, efforts at translation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Empowerment of excluded groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural empowerment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizing work </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Addressing Social Exclusion <ul><li>Creating spaces for inclusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improving communications, access to information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating spaces for political participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating shared cognitive spaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Democratizing benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Structural Adjustments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjusting program design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Legislation </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Poverty as Social Exclusion Amartya Sen and the Evolution of the Concept of Poverty Leland Joseph R. de la Cruz Director, Development Studies Program

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