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Review of Related Literature-Thesis Guide

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Prof. Rachel Khan's lecture on building a Review of Related Literature for undergraduate thesis.

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Review of Related Literature-Thesis Guide

  1. 1. Rachel E. Khan Associate Professor Journalism Department University of the Philippines
  2. 2. intro Old definition: The RRL is the selection and annotation of available documents (both published and unpublished), which contain information, ideas, data and evidence related to the topic that a person proposes to research on.
  3. 3. intro New definition: The RRL is “the use of ideas in the literature to justify the particular approach to the topic, the selection of methods, and demonstration that this research contributes something new. (Hart, 1998)”
  4. 4. intro The Review of Related Literature (RRL) is an important component of the research process and the research itself. Two ways of looking at the RRL - from the point of view of the researcher - from the point of view of the reader
  5. 5. purpose It helps shape the research :  earlier studies can help you identify a research problem;  broaden your knowledge in the research area;  provides important clues/leads to help you determine the topic of inquiry;  shows “what is already known” vs.“what needs to be known”;  provides the foundation and justification for your research problem; - from the point of view of the researcher
  6. 6. purpose  helps you Framing the valid research methodologies, approach, goals, and research questions for your study  provides clues/leads with regards the theoretical framework and methodological approach. - from the point of view of the researcher
  7. 7. purpose It provides the bigger picture:  shares with the reader the results of other studies that are closely related to the proposed study;  relates the proposed study to the on-going conversation on the topic;  provides the reader a benchmark for comparing your study with other studies;  helps the reader identify & appreciate the value-added information of your study - from the point of view of the reader
  8. 8. A systematic RRL input process output • data gathering • journals • conference proceedings • non-refereed materials • dissertations/these s • internet-based sources • know your literature describe summarize • analysize and synthesize compare-contrast combining integrating • evaluate selecting/deselecting Identifying its relevance to your study • exhibits the impact of the body of literature as a whole • what did you learn from the literature
  9. 9. tips and toes • write references in 3x5 index cards in APA Style; take note of page #s, keywords, ideas in each reference so that its easy to go back to • group together references from: a. books b. journals and periodicals c. unpublished researches (dissertation/theses) d. newspapers/magazines Source:AshfordUniversity
  10. 10. tips and toes Source:AshfordUniversity What to include in the review: • Consider what material is to be extracted from a previous study or journal article. • Potential points to be “extracted” for RRL:  problem being addressed  central topic/purpose or theme of the study  briefly state information about the sample, subjects of the study  review key results/conclusions of the study  methodology –strengths and/or flaws
  11. 11. tips and toes • To avoid plagiarism: review the literature, don’t reproduce it. refrain from copying verbatim what authors and researchers say; paraphrasing the literature in your own Words also helps your analysis of the text make sure that the source of text or idea is also indicated with your notes.
  12. 12. sourcing from the WWW There are two basic types of search engines: the Crawler- based, also known as the “spiders” and the human- powered directories. Yahoo! Google, Alta Vista, Ask Jeeves, Lycos… • Phrase search (“Asian Congress for Media and Communication") • Search within a specific website (site:) [ Philippines site:nytimes.com ] • Terms you want to exclude (-) (journalism –citizen) • Search exactly as is (+) (kris+aquino) • The OR & AND operator (journalists killings 2009 OR 2010) (journalists killings 2009 AND 2010)
  13. 13. sourcing from the WWW 5Cs of Evaluating Web Sources:  Credibility  Content Currency Construction Connectivity
  14. 14. sourcing from the WWW Check the domain extention or the top level domain (TLD). http://www.cnn.com:9988/frontpage/weather.html#typhoon protocol domain name directory path spot port address object name http://www.cnn.com:9988/frontpage/weather.html#typhoon protocol domain name directory path spot port address object name For example, if the TLD is a “.gov” it is an official government website; but, if it is a “.com” or a “.org” then the website was created by private persons. Other domains: edu - Educational institutions org - Organizations (private) mil - Military com - commercial business net - network organizations org – non-profit organization
  15. 15. sourcing from the WWW
  16. 16. delimiting the review How much literature to review? The sky is NOT the limit. • Provide parameters around your literature review, so that you don’t review ad infinitum. • Parameters may be the variables; the type of research or the time frame. Some examples: An analysis of foreign news content in local primetime news programs.
  17. 17. delimiting the review Characteristics of the Review 1. The text of the review should be brief and to the point. • To ensure brevity and conciseness, you have to summarize or paraphrase important points. Avoid direct quotations of the author’s ideas or the results of the studies you are reviewing. 2. Have a plan on how you are to present the review. • Prepare an outline before finally writing the review.This will ensure coherence and unity of ideas presented.The problem you are going to work on can serve as your outline for discussion of related literature and studies that are relevant to your proposed research.
  18. 18. delimiting the review Characteristics of the Review 3. Emphasize relatedness • Keep the reader aware of the manner in which the literature you are discussing is related to your problem. • Try to point out what that relationship is. 4. Review the literature, don’t reproduce it • Refrain from copying verbatim what authors and researchers say. Critically review and discuss the literature in relation to your research work.
  19. 19. approaches to writing the review 1. Chronological Literature and studies are presented according to the year they were written. Sample outline: A. Introduction B. Recent literature & studies C. Least recent literature & studies D. Synthesis of the review
  20. 20. approaches to writing the review 2.Thematic Literature and studies with the same findings are grouped together. Sample outline: A. Introduction B. Studies on independent variable C. Studies on major dependent variables D. Synthesis of the review
  21. 21. approaches to writing the review 3. Country of origin Literature and studies are categorized based on the country/continent where they came from. Sample outline: A. Introduction B. Foreign studies C. Local studies D. Synthesis of the review
  22. 22. approaches to writing the review Writing the Review Some notes: • It is in the introduction where you make your readers aware of your approach in presenting the related literature; • It is the synthesis where you specify the uniqueness of your study vis-à-vis the literature you had just discussed in the review.
  23. 23. references Bautista,Victoria (2000). Research and Public Management. UP Open University: Los Baños. Creswell, John (1994). Research Design: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. Sage Publications: California. Hart, C. (1998). Doing a literature review: Releasing the social science research imagination. London,UK: Sage Publications.

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