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# Measuring Poverty 2010

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For a presentation on January 22, 2010 at the Ateneo Alternative Class Program.

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### Measuring Poverty 2010

1. 1. Measuring Poverty<br />Leland Joseph R. Dela Cruz<br />Development Studies Program<br />Ateneo de Manila University<br />Alternative Class Program<br />January 22, 2010<br />
2. 2. Alternative questions for measuring poverty<br />How much income do you make?<br />How much income do you make relative to what others make?<br />Do you consider yourself poor?<br />Do you have access to basic needs?<br />What is the quality of life you are able to lead?<br />
3. 3. Poverty as Lack of Income<br />How much income do you make?<br />
4. 4. Test your knowledge!<br />How much should a family of 5 persons be earning per month to be considered non-poor? <br />What percent of the Philippine population is considered poor?<br />
5. 5. When is a person considered poor? <br />A poor person is someone who earns income below the official poverty line or poverty threshold.<br />The poverty line measures the income needed to obtain basic and non-basic needs for one year. <br />
6. 6. How does the government compute for the poverty line?<br />The government constructs a menu per region that satisfies basic nutritional requirements. The government computes for the cost of that menu. (ex. P43)<br />The government computes for the proportion of income that is budgeted for food using survey data. (ex. 66%)<br />The figure obtained in #1 is divided by the figure obtained in #2. (ex. P43 / 66% = P65)<br />
7. 7. What is the NCR poverty line (2008)? NSCB<br />P24,000.00<br />Individual/ year*<br />P2,000.00<br />Individual/ month*<br />P65.76<br />Individual/ day*<br />P120,000.00<br />Family/ year*<br />P10,000.00<br />Family/ month<br />P328.77<br />Family/ day*<br />*Unofficial, self-computed<br />
8. 8. What is the Philippine poverty line (2006)? NSCB<br />P15,057.57<br />Individual/ year NSCB<br />P1,254.80<br />Individual/ month*<br />P41.26<br />Individual/ day*<br />P75,287.85<br />Family/ year*<br />P6,273.99<br />Family/ month*<br />P206.29<br />Family/ day*<br />*Unofficial, self-computed<br />
9. 9. Poverty incidence 2006, NSCB<br />32.9% or 27.6 million Filipinos are poor. <br />32.9% of Filipinos earn less than P15,057.57 a year (Y36,557), P1,254.80 a month (Y3,046) and P41.26 a day (Y100.15).<br />26.9% or 4.6 million Filipino families are poor.<br />26.9% of families earn less than P75,287.85 a year (Y182,705), P6,273.99 a month (Y15,232.08) and P206.29 a day (Y500.78). <br />
10. 10. Poorest Provinces (2006) NSCB<br />
11. 11. Least Poor Provinces (2006) NSCB<br />
12. 12. Poverty trends NSCB<br />
13. 13. Philippine Poverty Incidence: Families (Percentage) NSCB<br />45<br />40<br />35<br />30<br />25<br />%<br />20<br />15<br />10<br />5<br />0<br />1988<br />1991<br />1994<br />1997<br />2000<br />2003<br />
14. 14. Philippine Poverty Incidence: Individuals (Percentage) NSCB<br />60<br />50<br />40<br />30<br />%<br />20<br />10<br />0<br />1988<br />1991<br />1994<br />1997<br />2000<br />2003<br />
15. 15. Philippine GNP Growth Rate (%)<br />NEDA Economic Indicators Online<br />
16. 16. Relative Poverty<br />How much income do you make relative to what others make?<br />
17. 17. Income Distribution 2006,NSO<br />
18. 18. Average family income, expenditures and savings per decile 2006, NSO<br />
19. 19. Income Distribution<br />
20. 20. Income Distribution<br />
21. 21. Self-Rated Poverty<br />Do you consider yourself poor?<br />
22. 22. Self-Rated Poverty SWS<br />
23. 23. Self-Rated Poverty Pulse-Asia<br />
24. 24. Self-Rated Poverty Pulse-Asia<br />
25. 25. Summary<br />
26. 26. Basic Needs Deprivation<br />Do you have access to basic needs?<br />
27. 27. Self-Rated Hunger SWS<br />
29. 29. Inadequacies at the <br />Elementary Level<br />Source: Basic Education Information System, DepEd<br />
30. 30. Inadequacies at the<br />Secondary Level<br />Source: Basic Education Information System, DepEd<br />
31. 31. Health Personnel by Location<br />Source: Dr. Merceditas Santos-Tuano, former Executive Director, Healthdev Institute<br />
32. 32. Child Delivery Attendants (2003,NDHS)<br />
33. 33. Child Delivery Attendants by Income Quintiles (2003,NDHS)<br />
34. 34. Location of Child Delivery (2003,NDHS)<br />
35. 35. Location of Child Delivery by Income Quintile (2003,NDHS)<br />
36. 36. Quality of Life Deprivation<br />What is the quality of life you are able to lead?<br />
37. 37. National Achievement Test Scores<br />Elementary Average: 59.94%<br />High School Average: 46.64%<br />Source: Basic Education Information System, DepEd<br />
38. 38. Third International Math and Science Survey<br />Grade 4 Test: Philippines ranked 3rd lowest among 25 countries (Japan ranked 3rd highest behind Singapore and Hong Kong)<br />Grade 8 Test: Philippines ranked 6th lowest among 45 countries (Japan ranked 5th highest behind Singapore, Korea, Hong Kong and Taiwan)<br />
39. 39. Female Life Expectancy2000, PSY<br />
40. 40. Male Life Expectancy2000, PSY<br />
41. 41. Life Expectancy2004, PSY<br />
42. 42. Infant Mortality Rateper 1,000 deliveries; 2000, PSY<br />
43. 43. Infant Mortality Rate per 1,000 deliveries; 2000, PSY<br />
44. 44. Infant Mortality Rate per 1,000 deliveries; 2000, PSY<br />
45. 45. Infant Mortality Rate per 1,000 deliveries; 2000, PSY<br />
46. 46. Maternal Mortality Rateper 100,000 live births; 1996-2000, PSY<br />
47. 47. Maternal Mortality Rateper 100,000 live births; 1995, PSY<br />
48. 48. Human Development Index<br />Income per capita<br />Health<br />Life Expectancy<br />Education<br />Mean Years of Schooling<br />Literacy Rate<br />
49. 49. Human Development Index UNDP 2004<br />
50. 50. Human Development Index UNDP 2004<br />
51. 51. Human Poverty Index UNDP 2004<br />Probability at birth of not surviving to age 40.<br />Adult illiteracy rate.<br />Population without access to an improved water source.<br />Children underweight for age.<br />
52. 52. Human Poverty Index UNDP 2004<br />
53. 53. Alternative questions for measuring poverty<br />How much income do you make?<br />How much income do you have relative to others?<br />Do you consider yourself poor?<br />Do you have access to basic needs?<br />What is the quality of life you are able to lead?<br />
54. 54. Poverty beyond measurement<br />Poverty as the inability to handle risks <br />Poverty as powerlessness<br />Poverty as social exclusion<br />
55. 55. Outline of the Presentation<br />Poverty Measurements<br />Causes of Poverty<br />Inequality<br />Inflation<br />Weak Human Capital<br />Absence of Employment Opportunities<br />Weak Agricultural Sector<br />Poor Governance<br />
56. 56. Unequal Asset Distribution: Land Distribution<br />50% of land area<br />449 Landowners*<br />30 Landowners*<br />50% of land area<br />*Ratio and proportion, assumes there are only 479 landowners in the country (based on 1991 Census of Agriculture)<br />
57. 57. Land Distribution<br />50% of land area<br />449 Landowners<br />25% of land area<br />29 Landowners<br />1 Landowner<br />25% of land area<br />*Ratio and proportion, assumes there are only 479 landowners in the country (based on 1991 Census of Agriculture)<br />
58. 58. Inflation: Rice Prices, 2008<br />
59. 59. Measuring Poverty<br />Leland Joseph R. Dela Cruz<br />Development Studies Program<br />slideshare.net/ldelacruz<br />