Human Security Approach

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Human Security Approach

  1. 1. The Human Security Approach: Poverty as Human Insecurity Amartya Sen and the Evolution of the Concept of Poverty Leland Joseph R. de la Cruz Director, Development Studies Program
  2. 2. Reference Human Security Now. The Final Report of the Commission on Human Security . 2003. www.humansecurity-chs.org
  3. 3. Key features of the human security approach <ul><li>Continued focus on deprivations </li></ul><ul><li>Highlights downside risks </li></ul><ul><li>Places particular emphasis on conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Highlights need for democracy and empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>Highlights need for an integrated framework for action </li></ul><ul><li>Frames certain problems as international concerns requiring international action </li></ul>
  4. 4. Human Development and Human Security <ul><li>Continued focus on deprivations </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes downside risks </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes empowerment </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Includes non-traditional social development considerations </li></ul>
  5. 5. Human Development and Human Security <ul><li>Continued focus on deprivations </li></ul><ul><li>Protecting people from deprivations </li></ul><ul><li>Protecting people from critical and pervasive situations </li></ul><ul><li>Protecting the vital core of human freedom and human fulfillment </li></ul>
  6. 6. Human Development and Human Security <ul><li>Highlights downside risks </li></ul><ul><li>Uses the language of protection in discussing deprivations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protecting people from deprivations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protecting people from critical and pervasive situations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protecting the vital core of human freedom and human fulfillment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protecting people from critical and pervasive threats </li></ul>
  7. 7. Emphasis on conflicts <ul><li>Highlights new vulnerable groups </li></ul><ul><li>Creates a frame for understanding new dimensions to traditional human development concerns. </li></ul><ul><li>Creates a frame for situating state security. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Vulnerable groups <ul><li>People caught up in conflict </li></ul><ul><li>(Internationalized) Internal conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Transnational organized crime </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorism </li></ul><ul><li>People on the move </li></ul><ul><li>Refugees </li></ul><ul><li>Internally displaced persons </li></ul><ul><li>Economic migrants </li></ul>
  9. 9. New dimensions to old concerns: Health <ul><li>Good health as a precondition to social and state stability. </li></ul><ul><li>Health impacts of military action and humanitarian difficulties in situations of conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>Biowarfare </li></ul>
  10. 10. New dimensions to old concerns: Education <ul><li>Education can be a venue for fostering mutual respect and diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Education can be a venue for empowerment (human rights) and peace-building (mediation courses) </li></ul><ul><li>Education can be a venue for aggravating tensions </li></ul>
  11. 11. State Security and Human Security <ul><li>Security is a pre-condition for development </li></ul><ul><li>Development itself is an element of human security: protection of vital core of human freedoms </li></ul><ul><li>Beyond protection, people must be empowered </li></ul><ul><li>Citizens must be protected against the state: democracy and the subordination of state sovereignty to human security </li></ul>
  12. 12. Social Protection and Human Security <ul><li>Transcends the common usage of social protection </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on conflicts as a source of vulnerabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes need for empowerment and not just protection </li></ul>
  13. 13. Human Rights and Human Security <ul><li>The human security approach acknowledges the importance of human rights and their universality and indivisibility. </li></ul><ul><li>The human security approach helps to identify particular gaps in the realization of human rights and particular vulnerabilities. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Emphasis on an integrated framework <ul><li>Manifestations of the lack of integration </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized roles of the Security Council, international financial institutions, and other UN agencies. </li></ul><ul><li>MDGs are only one of seven goals. </li></ul>
  15. 15. International Dimensions of Human Security <ul><li>International dimensions of internal conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Fair trade </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual property regimes </li></ul><ul><li>Health and education research and advocacy </li></ul><ul><li>Arms proliferation, weapons of mass destruction </li></ul><ul><li>International migration framework </li></ul>
  16. 16. Human Security <ul><li>Protecting the vital core of human freedom and human fulfillment </li></ul><ul><li>Protecting people from critical (severe) and pervasive (widespread) threats and situations </li></ul><ul><li>Creating opportunities for people to live in safety and dignity </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Human Security Approach: Poverty as Human Insecurity Amartya Sen and the Evolution of the Concept of Poverty Leland Joseph R. de la Cruz Director, Development Studies Program

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