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Wind Energy<br />Ali Lorden, Drew Anderson, Luke Donahue, Claire Mullen<br />
History of the Wind Turbine<br />
Early History<br />The first recording of a windmill came from a Hindu book dating back to about 400 B.C.E.<br />Scientist...
History<br />After  technology was brought back from the Crusades Early European windmills were used to drain wet land by ...
Windmills in America<br />The first American windmills were brought over by the Dutch in the seventeenth and eighteenth ce...
Electrification<br />Until the late nineteenth century windmills would only produce mechanical power for their tasks such ...
And Now<br />From the 1930’s to the 70’s coal and oil were relatively inexpensive and wind energy lost its popularity in A...
Pros of Wind Energy<br /><ul><li>Wind is Free, and the power it generates has been harnessed for centuries</li></ul>Wind i...
Cons of Wind<br />There are many obstacles to optimal use of Wind Power<br />Transmission- How to get energy from point A ...
Endangered birds can be killed by flying too close to wind turbines</li></li></ul><li>Wind Fluctuations- <br />As the sun ...
Modern technology<br />New urban rooftop windmills are new windmills with a smaller and quieter design. These windmills ar...
 Trend in size and rated power output of current and future wind turbines. (After U.S. Department of Energy Wind Program S...
How Wind Energy is Best Used<br />As of today wind energy is best fit to be used as an alternative source of energy but as...
How Wind Energy is Best Used<br />Wind power is a renewable energy source that has virtually no disrupting effect on the  ...
Windmills and Wind Farms<br />•A single 1MW windmill turbine operating at a 45% production rate will generate about 3.9 mi...
Other Options for Alternative Energy<br />Wind alone can not solve today’s energy crisis in one day, but together with man...
Solar Power<br /><ul><li>Solar panels are a viable technology most used in remote locations with abundant unused land, but...
these situations are rarely cost effective
Each panel contains many solar cells that collect light energy and turn it into electricity, if this technology can be imp...
Most other forms of solar power are only practical for large business operations, not residential or municipal use</li></l...
Hydro power<br />Researchers have discovered that placing turbines underwater could be a more efficient and reliable sourc...
Other forms of Hydro Power<br />Dams and Water Wheels have been used for centuries to provide mechanical power for mills ,...
Reliablity<br />Hydro power is mucheasier  to predict than wind because of its consistency, tidal patterns and water flowa...
Nuclear Power Positives<br />Fuel is inexpensive <br />Energy generation is the most concentrated source <br />Waste is mo...
Nuclear Power Negatives<br />Requires larger capital cost because of emergency, containment, radioactive waste and storage...
Why Fossil Fuels are Bad<br />Fossil fuels consist of a number of different substances but they all contain some mixture o...
“Clean” Coal <br />Clean coal is a technology that has been researched for years, as scientists try to find a way to burn ...
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  1. 1. Wind Energy<br />Ali Lorden, Drew Anderson, Luke Donahue, Claire Mullen<br />
  2. 2. History of the Wind Turbine<br />
  3. 3. Early History<br />The first recording of a windmill came from a Hindu book dating back to about 400 B.C.E.<br />Scientists believe that the first windmills created to do work were created in China 2000 years ago. There is no written history of this however.<br />The first recorded windmills that were created to do work are from seventh-century Persia.<br />The first historical reference to Chinese windmills was in 1219. This is significant because during this time windmills were used along the coast of china for wind power<br />Some windmills are still intact in Iranand Afghanistan from the 7th century<br />These windmills are reverse of the windmills today however, wind energy went into a chamber to turn blades, while today the blades are on an external axis<br />The y are still around today and can grind about a tonof grain per day<br />
  4. 4. History<br />After technology was brought back from the Crusades Early European windmills were used to drain wet land by pumping water.<br />The design of the European windmills was based on the water wheel due to the factthat windmills should be put on a vertical axis when the windmills in Persia were built on a horizontal axis.<br />During this time the foundation for windmills was set. It was up for inventors to create new blades and other ways to make the windmill more efficient.<br />By the end of the nineteenth century there were over 30,000 windmills in Europe. They were used for more than just pumping water and grinding grain, people used them to run saw mills and other industrial plants.<br />
  5. 5. Windmills in America<br />The first American windmills were brought over by the Dutch in the seventeenth and eighteenth century, and were assembled in New York and New England<br /> When settlers moved out west to the great planes settlers would need to harness wind power in order to get work done but Dutch style windmills would fall apart in the strong wind that would sweep across the plains<br />A designer in New England, Daniel Halladay, created a new windmill for the conditions in the midwest. He made the new windmills have many blades and a tail on the back to direct the wind. This increased wind power production greatly in the midwest.<br />A few years later these new windmills were made with steel blades. The new blades would not break as easily than the old wooden blades, and the steel blades could be curved to maximize wind production.<br />
  6. 6. Electrification<br />Until the late nineteenth century windmills would only produce mechanical power for their tasks such as grinding grain or pumping water.<br />With the creation of electricity, windmill makers found that windmills could be attached to a generator and used to create power for heating and lighting.<br />The first windmill used to produce electric energy was created in 1888 by Charles F. Brush.<br />These windmills needed to produce 500 revolution per minute in order to power a generator.<br />
  7. 7. And Now<br />From the 1930’s to the 70’s coal and oil were relatively inexpensive and wind energy lost its popularity in America though windmills were used in many other countries throughout the world<br />In 1973 America was affected by the Arab oil embargo. This caused focus to turn toward wind power.<br />The U.S. Federal Wind Energy Program was established in 1974.<br />By the late 1980’s it was becoming very difficult to attract funding for wind energy because people did not believe that wind power could be strong enough to produce the same amount of power as oil.<br />Modern wind power is a strong option for alternative energy, and its rich history proves it can be used effectively<br />
  8. 8.
  9. 9. Pros of Wind Energy<br /><ul><li>Wind is Free, and the power it generates has been harnessed for centuries</li></ul>Wind is a completely renewable resource because it is something that occurs naturally, once the means are there; technologically and practically, it can be harnessed constantly without destructive effects (emissions and use of resources) to our abused planet. <br />Generation and maintenance costs for turbines have decreased significantly in recent years<br />Wind power is well suited to rural areas<br />
  10. 10. Cons of Wind<br />There are many obstacles to optimal use of Wind Power<br />Transmission- How to get energy from point A to point B<br />Technology- Means storage and containment of power must be developed<br /><ul><li>Weather- Wind power is highly subjective not only to location but also to climate, time of year, and currents/weather patterns</li></ul>For many problems new tower designs provide an answer<br /><ul><li>Noise and view disruption become an issue with communities near wind farms
  11. 11. Endangered birds can be killed by flying too close to wind turbines</li></li></ul><li>Wind Fluctuations- <br />As the sun hits the earth, much of its energy is absorbed by the atmosphere, more is absorbed by the warm air near the equator, and less towards the poles, these variations in pressure and temperature create movement, currents that flow around the planet, while the energy from these never runs out, it is not predictable, and can not be relied upon as a constant energy source<br />The major issue of wind fluctuation could be solved by the creation of a technology that can collect and distribute this power more efficiently<br />
  12. 12. Modern technology<br />New urban rooftop windmills are new windmills with a smaller and quieter design. These windmills are designed to be more efficient with wind patterns occurring in cities. They are able to turn at wind speeds as low as 8 mph<br />What is Wind Energy?<br />Wind energy is the transformation of the kinetic energy of the wind into mechanical or electrical energy that can be harnessed for practical use<br />
  13. 13.  Trend in size and rated power output of current and future wind turbines. (After U.S. Department of Energy Wind Program Subcontractor Review Meeting, July 17–19, 2000)<br />There has been a push towards creating larger wind turbines to optimize the use of wind. Researchers are debating whether a larger turbine will create more power or more problems. Larger turbines need greater maintenance and have a greater cost in order to keep them running efficiently.<br />Technological Advancements<br />
  14. 14. How Wind Energy is Best Used<br />As of today wind energy is best fit to be used as an alternative source of energy but as costs go down and effectiveness goes up this could soon change, and wind energy may become a viable option the leading source powering the future. Placement is key in using wind farms and windmills, because if the money is to be spent to create one, optimal effectiveness will need to be assured. <br />
  15. 15. How Wind Energy is Best Used<br />Wind power is a renewable energy source that has virtually no disrupting effect on the environment<br />With limitations due to price and storage issues it is not a viable option as a constant source of power<br />Especially considering the fact that practical wind machines only extract 5% to 45% of available power depending on the efficiency of the turbine design <br />We are best served to use wind energy in harmony with other forms of energy. <br />
  16. 16. Windmills and Wind Farms<br />•A single 1MW windmill turbine operating at a 45% production rate will generate about 3.9 million kW of electricity in a year. This would be enough to meet the needs of about 500 households per year. <br />•A wind farm will consist of anywhere from 12 to 100 of these 1MW windmills. <br />
  17. 17. Other Options for Alternative Energy<br />Wind alone can not solve today’s energy crisis in one day, but together with many other forms of renewable power, maybe someday we can help relieve the damage to our planet caused by the overconsumption of fossil fuels.<br />
  18. 18. Solar Power<br /><ul><li>Solar panels are a viable technology most used in remote locations with abundant unused land, but many people have been adapting them to settings like urban rooftops, or private houses, building small arrays to produce a faction of their needed power
  19. 19. these situations are rarely cost effective
  20. 20. Each panel contains many solar cells that collect light energy and turn it into electricity, if this technology can be improved upon, solar energy may become a more reliable option in the future
  21. 21. Most other forms of solar power are only practical for large business operations, not residential or municipal use</li></li></ul><li>Problems with Solar Power<br />There is a common misconception that Solar Power is the most common of all sources of renewable power, or the most effective<br />While solar energy is constantly striking the earth, making it a totally renewable resource it is still contingent upon weather, season, and time of day in a given location<br />The chemicals required to make today's solar panels are not cheap, nor are they particularly <br />Solar panels require lots of space, they can be effective but are usually not cost efficient<br />
  22. 22. Hydro power<br />Researchers have discovered that placing turbines underwater could be a more efficient and reliable source of energy<br />A major set back is the challenge of anchoring those turbines to the ocean floor, through harsh storms. <br />If a way was discovered to do this, underwater turbines would also help break down storm waves decreasing the damage done towards shore<br />The ocean turbines use the incoming waves to generate power.<br />
  23. 23. Other forms of Hydro Power<br />Dams and Water Wheels have been used for centuries to provide mechanical power for mills , and later forms of early Electrical power<br />Hydro Power is clean and totally renewable so once reliable technology is wide-spread this could provide power to coastal regions all over the world<br />
  24. 24. Reliablity<br />Hydro power is mucheasier to predict than wind because of its consistency, tidal patterns and water floware much more regular than wind which is constantly changing, which means that it can be used more effectively<br />
  25. 25. Nuclear Power Positives<br />Fuel is inexpensive <br />Energy generation is the most concentrated source <br />Waste is more compact than any source <br />Easy to transport as new fuel <br />No greenhouse or acid rain effects <br />
  26. 26. Nuclear Power Negatives<br />Requires larger capital cost because of emergency, containment, radioactive waste and storage systems <br />Requires resolution of the long-term high level waste storage issue in most countries <br />Potential unstable nuclear reactor explosion danger<br />
  27. 27. Why Fossil Fuels are Bad<br />Fossil fuels consist of a number of different substances but they all contain some mixture of hydrogen and carbon (hydrocarbon) compounds<br />There are two kinds of fossil fuel power plants, steam turbine and gas turbine, steam turbine plants are larger and more common in highly populated areas, often they are used together<br />To release energy these fuels are combusted, the heat energy releases stored energy in the molecules, but since the burn is not clean, many harmful emissions are released into the atmosphere <br />Many people say thattechnologies for cleaner burning of fossil fuels canbe developed, but thisdoes not solve the problem of over consumption<br />
  28. 28. “Clean” Coal <br />Clean coal is a technology that has been researched for years, as scientists try to find a way to burn coal with out the massive release of Carbon Dioxide<br />The problem with this is that coal is still a nonrenewable recourse that will soon run out, as it is mined from landscape leaving mountains devastated because it is so in demand that companies will literally just blast the top off of a mountain and then collect the coal and leave a flat topped hill<br />
  29. 29. New Energy Is NEEDED<br />It is clear that the energy crisis the world is in right now is not going to get any better without drastic change, we have technologies that could lead us into the future, but people need to accept these changes, and try to cut down on their consumption. There are lots of forms of power that could work together to light our future, but first we need to stop our dependence on destructive fossil fuels and start working on the difficulties that could arise from new forms of power.<br />
  30. 30. Source Citations<br />"Wind Energy." Alternative Energy. Ed. Neil Schlager and Jayne Weisblatt. Vol. 3: Water Energy, Wind Energy, Energy Conservation and Efficiency, Possible Future Energy Sources. Detroit: UXL, 2006. 305-336. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 2 Mar. 2010.<br />Donald Jones, Mississauga"Gas, not wind, is replacing coal." The Toronto Star (Toronto, Ontario) (Nov 10, 2009) Editorial: A22. Global Reference on the Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources. Gale. Cushing Academy. 1 Mar. 2010<http://find.galegroup.com/grnr/start.do?prodId=GRNR>.<br />Blankinship, Steve. "The coal-wind connection: electrons from coal plants and wind farms will ride together on new transmission lines they both desperately need." Power Engineering 111.1 (Jan 2007) 18(4). Global Reference on the Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources. Gale. Cushing Academy. 1 Mar. 2010 <http://find.galegroup.com/grnr/start.do?prodId=GRNR><br />Rooftop windmills. (Global News). (Spring 2003). Alternatives Journal, 29(2), 6(1). Retrieved March 03, 2010, from Global Reference on the Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources via Gale:http://find.galegroup.com/grnr/start.do?prodId=GRNRA. C. Hansen and C. P. Butterfield, Aerodynamics of horizontal-axis wind turbines, Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech., 25:115–149, 1993 <br />S. Heier, Grid Integration of Wind Energy Conversion Systems, Wiley, Chichester, 1998 <br />D. A. Spera (ed.), Wind Turbine Technology, ASME Press, New York, 1994 <br />S. Wagner, R. Bareiss, and G. Guidati, Wind Turbine Noise, Springer, Berlin, 1996 <br />J. F. Walker and N. Jenkins, Wind Energy Technology, Wiley, Chichester, 1997<br />http://www.accessscience.com/content.aspx?searchStr=modern+windmills&id=YB021005#BIB<br />http://cache.wists.com/thumbnails/b/b0/bb0d495e0091d8db181533cf6988fbe8-orig<br />http://www.blogcdn.com/www.engadget.com/media/2008/11/searaser2.jpg<br />http://mendocoastcurrent.files.wordpress.com/2008/02/turbines540.jpg<br />http://tinypic.com/view.php?pic=w0keqc&s=5<br />http://www.ironmanwindmill.com/images/windmill-history/history7.jpg<br />Gary Thomann, "Wind power", in AccessScience@McGraw-Hill, http://www.accessscience.com, DOI 10.1036/1097-8542.746400<br />William K. Fox, "Energy sources", in AccessScience@McGraw-Hill, http://www.accessscience.com, DOI 10.1036/1097-8542.233000<br />SaifurRahman, "Renewable energy sources", in AccessScience@McGraw-Hill, http://www.accessscience.com, DOI 10.1036/1097-8542.YB041150<br />Robert L. San Martin, "Solar energy", in AccessScience@McGraw-Hill, http://www.accessscience.com, DOI 10.1036/1097-8542.633300<br />"Wind Energy." Encyclopedia of Environment and Society. Ed. Paul Robbins. Vol. 5. Los Angeles: Sage Publications Inc., 2007. 1968-1969. Global Reference on the Environment, Energy, and Natural Resources. Web. 5 Mar. 2010.<br />http://www.istockphoto.com/file_thumbview_approve/5312495/2/istockphoto_5312495-windmills.jpg<br />http://media.photobucket.com/image/windmills/MrsLavenderblue/Here%20and%20There/netherlands_windmills2_edited.jpg<br />http://www.daysout.nl/img/dagjeweg/kinderdijk-active-windmill-8494.jpg<br />http://www.finfacts.com/irelandbusinessnews/uploads/winddec102007.jpg<br />"Solar Power." Environmental Science: In Context. Ed. Brenda Wilmoth Lerner and K. Lee Lerner. Vol. 2. Detroit: Gale, 2009. 750-752. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 5 Mar. 2010.<br />Document URL<br />http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?&id=GALE%7CCX3233900215&v=2.1&u=mlin_c_cushing&it=r&p=GVRL&sw=w<br />Natural Resources Canada. “Technologies and Applications: About Solar Energy.” April 26, 2005. www.canren.gc.ca/tech_appl/index.asp?CaId=5&PgId=121 (accessed March 19, 2008).<br />U.S. Department of Energy. “DOE to Invest up to $13.7 Million in 11 Solar Cell Projects.” March 12, 2008. http://www.eere.energy.gov/news/news_detail.cfm/news_id=11638 (accessed March 19, 2008).<br />Kemp, William. The Renewable Energy Handbook: A Guide to Rural Energy Independence, Off-Grid and Sustainable Living. Tamworth, Ontario, Canada: Aztext Press, 2006<br />Thomas, Isabel. The Pros and Cons of Solar Power. New York: Rosen Central, 2008.<br />Eugene C. Starr, Maris T. Fravel, NatarajanSekhar, Dwight L. Glasscock, Thomas W. Reddoch, "Electric power generation", in AccessScience@McGraw-Hill, http://www.accessscience.com, DOI 10.1036/1097-8542.216600<br />
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