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UNIT NO – 1
LECTURE NO -2
TOPIC – BIOSENSOR
BACHELOR OF PHARMACY
PHARMACEUTICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
BP- 605T
MR. ARPIT GUPTA
(ASSISTANT PROFESSOR)
(DR. RML INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY)
7599900257 AG PHARMACY arpitguptapwn23@gmail.com
CONTENTS
Introduction
Main components of biosensor
Working principle
Types of biosensor
Application
Important questions
References
7599900257 AG PHARMACY arpitguptapwn23@gmail.com
INTRODUCTION
Biosensor is an analytical device, used for the detection
of a chemical substance, that combines a biological
component with a physicochemical detector. The sensitive
biologicalelement,e.g.tissue,microorganisms,organelles,cell
receptors, enzymes, antibodies, nucleic acids, etc.
 It is a biologically derived material or biomimetic
component that interacts with, binds with, or recognizes the
analyte under study. The biologically sensitive elements
can also be created by biological engineering.
7599900257 AG PHARMACY arpitguptapwn23@gmail.com
7599900257 AG PHARMACY arpitguptapwn23@gmail.com
MAIN COMPONENTS OF
A BIOSENSOR
• Sensor
• Transducer
• Amplifier
• Processor
• Display unitit
7599900257 AG PHARMACY arpitguptapwn23@gmail.com
 Sensor-It is a sensitive biological element (biological material
(eg. tissue, microorganisms, organelles, cell receptors, enzymes,
antibodies, nucleicacids,etc).
 Transducer- Transducer is a device that converts energy from
oneformto another form.
 Amplifier- An amplifier, electronic amplifier or
(informally) amp is an electronic device that can increase
the power of a signal (a time-varying voltage or current)
 Processor- Its basic job is to receive input and provide the
appropriate output .
 Display Unit- Performs signal conditioning such as amplification
and conversion of signals from analogue into the digital form. The
processed signals are then quantified by the display unit of
the biosensor
7599900257 AG PHARMACY arpitguptapwn23@gmail.com
7599900257 AG PHARMACY arpitguptapwn23@gmail.com
WORKING PRINCIPLE
 Biosensors are operated based on the principle
ofsignal transduction.
 Bioreceptor, is allowed to interact with a specific analyte. The
transducer measures this interaction and outputs a signal.
 The intensity of the signal output is proportional to the
concentration of the analyte. The signal is then amplified and
processed by the electronicsystem.
FEATURES OF A BIOSENSOR
7599900257 AG PHARMACY arpitguptapwn23@gmail.com
a) It should be highly specificfor theanalyte.
b) Thereactionusedshouldbeindependentofmanageable
factors likepH,temperature,stirring,etc.
c) Theresponseshouldbelinearoverausefulrangeof
analyte concentrations.
d) Thedeviceshould be tinyandbio-compatible.
e) Thedeviceshouldbecheap,small,easytouseandcapable
of repeateduse.
7599900257 AG PHARMACY arpitguptapwn23@gmail.com
TYPES OF BIOSENSOR
1. Calorimetric Biosensors
2. Potentiometric Biosensors
3. Acoustic Wave Biosensors
4. Amperometric Biosensors
5. Optical Biosensors
7599900257 AG PHARMACY arpitguptapwn23@gmail.com
1. Calorimetric Biosensor-
 Many enzyme catalysed reactions are exothermic, generating
heat which may be used as a basis for measuring the rate of
reaction and,hence,the analyteconcentration.
 The analyte solution is passed through a small packed bed
column containing immobilized enzyme; the temperature of
the solution is determined just before entry of the solution into
the column and just as it is leaving the column using separate
thermistors.
 An example is the use of glucose oxidase for determination of
glucose.
7599900257 AG PHARMACY arpitguptapwn23@gmail.com
2. Potententiometric Biosensor
Potentiometric biosensors are developed by combining a
biorecognition element (essentially an enzyme) with a
transducer that senses the variation in protons (or other ions)
amount, the recorded analytical signal being logarithmically
correlated with the analyte concentration.
Potentiometric biosensors make use of ion-selective
electrodes in order to transduce the biological reaction into an
electrical signal.
In the simplest terms this consists of an immobilised
enzyme membrane surrounding the probe from a pH-meter ,
where the catalysed reaction generates or absorbs hydrogen
ions .
3.Acoustic Wave Biosensors
(Piezoelectric Biosensors)
7599900257 AG PHARMACY arpitguptapwn23@gmail.com
A piezoelectric sensor is a device that uses
the piezoelectric effect to measure changes
in pressure, acceleration, temperature, strain, or force
by converting them to an electrical charge. The
prefix piezo- is Greek for 'press' or 'squeeze’.
A piezoelectric sensor that could reliably detect the
mycobacterial antigen in biological fluids would be of
enormous use.
7599900257 AG PHARMACY arpitguptapwn23@gmail.com
4. Amperometric Biosensors
 Amperometric biosensors are self-contained
integrated devices based on the measurement of the
current resulting from the oxidation or reduction of
an electroactive biological element providing
specific quantitative analytical information.
7599900257 AG PHARMACY arpitguptapwn23@gmail.com
5. Optical Biosensors:-
 These involve determining changes in light absorption
between the reactants and products of a reaction, or
measuring the light output by a luminescentprocess.
 A most promising biosensor involving luminescence uses
firefly enzyme luciferase for detection of bacteria in food or
clinical samples.
7599900257 AG PHARMACY arpitguptapwn23@gmail.com
APPLICATIONS OF BIOSENSOR
• Foodanalysis
• Study of
Biomolecules and
their interactions
• Drugdevelopment
• Crimedetection
• Medicaldiagnosis
• Environmental field
monitoring
• Industrial processcontrol
• Manufacturing of
pharmaceuticals
and replacementof
organs
• Monitoring glucoselevelin
diabetespatients
• Proteinengineering
• Wastewatertreatment
:
7599900257 AG PHARMACY arpitguptapwn23@gmail.com
Biosensors in Food Industry
 Biosensors areusedforthedetectionofpathogensinfood.
 Presence of Escherichia coli in vegetables,is a bioindicator of faecal
contaminationin food.
 E. coli has been measured by detecting variation in pH caused by
ammonia(producedbyurease–E.
 coli antibody conjugate) using potentiometric alternating biosensing
systems.
 Enzymaticbiosensorsarealsoemployedinthedairyindustry.
Biosensors in Medical field
7599900257 AG PHARMACY arpitguptapwn23@gmail.com
 Glucosebiosensors arewidelyusedin clinicalapplicationsfor
diagnosis of diabetesmellitus.
 A novelbiosensor,basedonhafniumoxide(HfO2),hasbeen usedfor
earlystagedetectionofhumaninterleukin.
 Thesearealso used fordetectionof cardiovasculardiseases.
Biosensors in Drug Discovery and Drug Analysis
 Enzyme‐basedbiosensors canbe applied inthe pharmaceutical
industry for monitoring chemicalparametersin the production
process (inbioreactors).
 Affinity biosensors aresuitable for high‐throughput screeningof
bioprocess‐produced antibodies and for drugscreening.
 Oligonucleotide‐immobilizedbiosensors for interactionsstudies
betweenasurfacelinkedDNAandthetargetdrugorfor
hybridization studies.
7599900257 AG PHARMACY arpitguptapwn23@gmail.com
THANK YOU
Hello Friends
If You Get any Help from
this
Notes/ Videos
You Can Pay Your Fess or
Contribute
Some Amount to Our
AG Pharmacy Family
Name: Arpit Gupta
https://youtube.com/@agpharmacy?si=kzzLm41L2ysLgARe
YouTube – AG PHARMACY
7599900257 AG PHARMACY arpitguptapwn23@gmail.com

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II BIOSENSOR PRINCIPLE APPLICATIONS AND WORKING II

  • 1. UNIT NO – 1 LECTURE NO -2 TOPIC – BIOSENSOR BACHELOR OF PHARMACY PHARMACEUTICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY BP- 605T MR. ARPIT GUPTA (ASSISTANT PROFESSOR) (DR. RML INSTITUTE OF PHARMACY) 7599900257 AG PHARMACY arpitguptapwn23@gmail.com
  • 2. CONTENTS Introduction Main components of biosensor Working principle Types of biosensor Application Important questions References 7599900257 AG PHARMACY arpitguptapwn23@gmail.com
  • 3. INTRODUCTION Biosensor is an analytical device, used for the detection of a chemical substance, that combines a biological component with a physicochemical detector. The sensitive biologicalelement,e.g.tissue,microorganisms,organelles,cell receptors, enzymes, antibodies, nucleic acids, etc.  It is a biologically derived material or biomimetic component that interacts with, binds with, or recognizes the analyte under study. The biologically sensitive elements can also be created by biological engineering. 7599900257 AG PHARMACY arpitguptapwn23@gmail.com
  • 4. 7599900257 AG PHARMACY arpitguptapwn23@gmail.com MAIN COMPONENTS OF A BIOSENSOR • Sensor • Transducer • Amplifier • Processor • Display unitit
  • 5. 7599900257 AG PHARMACY arpitguptapwn23@gmail.com  Sensor-It is a sensitive biological element (biological material (eg. tissue, microorganisms, organelles, cell receptors, enzymes, antibodies, nucleicacids,etc).  Transducer- Transducer is a device that converts energy from oneformto another form.  Amplifier- An amplifier, electronic amplifier or (informally) amp is an electronic device that can increase the power of a signal (a time-varying voltage or current)  Processor- Its basic job is to receive input and provide the appropriate output .  Display Unit- Performs signal conditioning such as amplification and conversion of signals from analogue into the digital form. The processed signals are then quantified by the display unit of the biosensor
  • 6. 7599900257 AG PHARMACY arpitguptapwn23@gmail.com
  • 7. 7599900257 AG PHARMACY arpitguptapwn23@gmail.com WORKING PRINCIPLE  Biosensors are operated based on the principle ofsignal transduction.  Bioreceptor, is allowed to interact with a specific analyte. The transducer measures this interaction and outputs a signal.  The intensity of the signal output is proportional to the concentration of the analyte. The signal is then amplified and processed by the electronicsystem.
  • 8. FEATURES OF A BIOSENSOR 7599900257 AG PHARMACY arpitguptapwn23@gmail.com a) It should be highly specificfor theanalyte. b) Thereactionusedshouldbeindependentofmanageable factors likepH,temperature,stirring,etc. c) Theresponseshouldbelinearoverausefulrangeof analyte concentrations. d) Thedeviceshould be tinyandbio-compatible. e) Thedeviceshouldbecheap,small,easytouseandcapable of repeateduse.
  • 9. 7599900257 AG PHARMACY arpitguptapwn23@gmail.com TYPES OF BIOSENSOR 1. Calorimetric Biosensors 2. Potentiometric Biosensors 3. Acoustic Wave Biosensors 4. Amperometric Biosensors 5. Optical Biosensors
  • 10. 7599900257 AG PHARMACY arpitguptapwn23@gmail.com 1. Calorimetric Biosensor-  Many enzyme catalysed reactions are exothermic, generating heat which may be used as a basis for measuring the rate of reaction and,hence,the analyteconcentration.  The analyte solution is passed through a small packed bed column containing immobilized enzyme; the temperature of the solution is determined just before entry of the solution into the column and just as it is leaving the column using separate thermistors.  An example is the use of glucose oxidase for determination of glucose.
  • 11. 7599900257 AG PHARMACY arpitguptapwn23@gmail.com 2. Potententiometric Biosensor Potentiometric biosensors are developed by combining a biorecognition element (essentially an enzyme) with a transducer that senses the variation in protons (or other ions) amount, the recorded analytical signal being logarithmically correlated with the analyte concentration. Potentiometric biosensors make use of ion-selective electrodes in order to transduce the biological reaction into an electrical signal. In the simplest terms this consists of an immobilised enzyme membrane surrounding the probe from a pH-meter , where the catalysed reaction generates or absorbs hydrogen ions .
  • 12. 3.Acoustic Wave Biosensors (Piezoelectric Biosensors) 7599900257 AG PHARMACY arpitguptapwn23@gmail.com A piezoelectric sensor is a device that uses the piezoelectric effect to measure changes in pressure, acceleration, temperature, strain, or force by converting them to an electrical charge. The prefix piezo- is Greek for 'press' or 'squeeze’. A piezoelectric sensor that could reliably detect the mycobacterial antigen in biological fluids would be of enormous use.
  • 13. 7599900257 AG PHARMACY arpitguptapwn23@gmail.com 4. Amperometric Biosensors  Amperometric biosensors are self-contained integrated devices based on the measurement of the current resulting from the oxidation or reduction of an electroactive biological element providing specific quantitative analytical information.
  • 14. 7599900257 AG PHARMACY arpitguptapwn23@gmail.com 5. Optical Biosensors:-  These involve determining changes in light absorption between the reactants and products of a reaction, or measuring the light output by a luminescentprocess.  A most promising biosensor involving luminescence uses firefly enzyme luciferase for detection of bacteria in food or clinical samples.
  • 15. 7599900257 AG PHARMACY arpitguptapwn23@gmail.com APPLICATIONS OF BIOSENSOR • Foodanalysis • Study of Biomolecules and their interactions • Drugdevelopment • Crimedetection • Medicaldiagnosis • Environmental field monitoring • Industrial processcontrol • Manufacturing of pharmaceuticals and replacementof organs • Monitoring glucoselevelin diabetespatients • Proteinengineering • Wastewatertreatment
  • 16. : 7599900257 AG PHARMACY arpitguptapwn23@gmail.com Biosensors in Food Industry  Biosensors areusedforthedetectionofpathogensinfood.  Presence of Escherichia coli in vegetables,is a bioindicator of faecal contaminationin food.  E. coli has been measured by detecting variation in pH caused by ammonia(producedbyurease–E.  coli antibody conjugate) using potentiometric alternating biosensing systems.  Enzymaticbiosensorsarealsoemployedinthedairyindustry.
  • 17. Biosensors in Medical field 7599900257 AG PHARMACY arpitguptapwn23@gmail.com  Glucosebiosensors arewidelyusedin clinicalapplicationsfor diagnosis of diabetesmellitus.  A novelbiosensor,basedonhafniumoxide(HfO2),hasbeen usedfor earlystagedetectionofhumaninterleukin.  Thesearealso used fordetectionof cardiovasculardiseases.
  • 18. Biosensors in Drug Discovery and Drug Analysis  Enzyme‐basedbiosensors canbe applied inthe pharmaceutical industry for monitoring chemicalparametersin the production process (inbioreactors).  Affinity biosensors aresuitable for high‐throughput screeningof bioprocess‐produced antibodies and for drugscreening.  Oligonucleotide‐immobilizedbiosensors for interactionsstudies betweenasurfacelinkedDNAandthetargetdrugorfor hybridization studies. 7599900257 AG PHARMACY arpitguptapwn23@gmail.com
  • 19. THANK YOU Hello Friends If You Get any Help from this Notes/ Videos You Can Pay Your Fess or Contribute Some Amount to Our AG Pharmacy Family Name: Arpit Gupta https://youtube.com/@agpharmacy?si=kzzLm41L2ysLgARe YouTube – AG PHARMACY 7599900257 AG PHARMACY arpitguptapwn23@gmail.com