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Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine


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Horizontal axis wind turbine is a type wind turbine. Nearly around 95% of the wind turbines using now a days are Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines.

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Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine

  2. 2. MAIN COMPONENTS OF HAWT ROTOR Blades Hub NACELLE Low speed shaft Brake Gear Box High speed shaft Generator Controller Anemometer & Wind vane Yaw System TOWER
  3. 3. ROTOR (BLADES & HUB) • BLADE – Main part which convert free flowing wind energy to useful energy. – Uses Lift & Drag principle as shown in the picture. – Three blade rotor is best compared to two and single blade turbines.
  4. 4. • HUB – In simple designs, the blades are directly bolted to the hub. – In other more sophisticated designs, they are bolted to the pitch mechanism, which adjusts their angle of attack according to the wind speed. – The hub is fixed to the rotor shaft which drives the generator through a gearbox.
  5. 5. NACELLE • Nacelle provides housing for • Low speed shaft • Brake • Gear Box • High speed shaft • Generator • Anemometer • Wind vane
  6. 6. • LOW SPEED SHAFT – The shaft from hub to the Gear box – Speed is typically between 40rpm to 400rpm – Generators typically rotate at 1200rpm to 1800rpm. • GEAR BOX •Gearbox increases the speed of the shaft. •Meets the requirement of the generator.
  7. 7. • High Speed Shaft – Gearbox is followed by the high speed shaft – Connects to generator • Braking Mechanism •A mechanical drum brake or disk brake is used to stop turbine in emergency situation. •This brake is also used to hold the turbine at rest for maintenance
  8. 8. • Generator – Wind power Generator converts wind energy(mechanical energy) to electrical energy. – Typically wind turbines generate electricity through asynchronous machines that are directly connected with the electricity grid. – The Generator is attached at one end to the wind turbine, which provides the mechanical energy. – At the other end, the generator is connected to the electrical grid. – The generator need to have a cooling system to make sure there is no overheating.
  9. 9. • Controller – The controller starts up the machine at wind speeds of about 8 to 16 miles per hour (mph) and shuts off the machine at about 55 mph. – Turbines do not operate at wind speeds above about 55 mph because they might be damaged by the high winds – The controller gets wind speed data from the anemometer and acts accordingly .
  10. 10. • Yaw System – The yaw system of wind turbines is the component responsible for the orientation of the wind turbine rotor towards the wind. – It is the means of rotatable connection between nacelle and tower. – The nacelle is mounted on a roller bearing and the azimuth rotation is achieved via a plurality of powerful electric drives. • Yaw system consists of – Yaw bearing – Yaw drives – Yaw brake
  11. 11. • Yaw Bearing – One of the main components of the yaw system is the yaw bearing. It can be of the roller or gliding type and it serves as a rotatable connection between the tower and the nacelle of the wind turbine.
  12. 12. • Yaw drive – The yaw drive is used to keep the rotor facing into the wind as the wind direction changes. – The yaw drives exist only on the active yaw systems and are the means of active rotation of the wind turbine nacelle. – Each yaw drive consists of powerful electric motor (usually AC) with its electric drive and a large gearbox, which increases the torque.
  13. 13. • Yaw brake – In order to stabilize the yaw bearing against rotation a means of braking is necessary. – One of the simplest ways to realize that task is to apply a constant small counter-torque at the yaw drives. – This operation however greatly reduces the reliability of the electric yaw drives, therefore the most common solution is the implementation of a hydraulically actuated disk brake.
  14. 14. • Tower – Typically, 2 types of towers exist • Floating towers and • Land-based towers. – Floating towers can be seen in offshore wind farms where the towers are float on water. – Land-based Towers can be seen in the Onshore wind farm where the towers are situated on the land.
  15. 15. • For HAWTs, tower heights approximately two to three times the blade length have been found to balance material costs of the tower against better utilisation of the more expensive active components. • At the bottom level of the tower there will be stepup transformers for the connection to the Grid.
  16. 16. THANK YOU