Renewable Energy Resources By : Pradeep Choudhary Completed from:suzlon energy ltd. jaisalmer
Wind Energy Technology Pradeep choudharyDepartment of Electronics & communication Engineering, Gits,udaipur
Wind Power Potential The wind power potential on a national level, base data collected from 10 states considering only 1% of land availability, is around 46,092 MW. Wind Speed: 6.0 m/s Wind Speed: 6.4 m/s Wind Speed: 7.0 m/s Wind Speed: 7.5 m/s Wind Speed: 8.0m/s
Turbine Evolution Used for • Pumping water • Grinding grainMainly used for • Generating Electricity
Over 3,000 years ago, the ancient Egyptians used wind power tosail their ships on the Nile River. Later, people built windmills to grind their grain.In 1891, the first electrical output wind machine was developed incorporating the aerodynamic design principles.
TYPES OF WIND TURBINES 1. Onshore: Onshore wind turbines are placed inhilly and mountainous places andare at least three kilometers awayfrom the nearest shore. 2. Near-shore Near-shore wind turbines are installed within three kilometers from the nearest shore or on water within ten kilometers from land. 3.Offshore Offshore wind turbines’ developementzones are at least ten kilometers away from land.
Why Wind Energy?Wind, for now, is the renewable energy resource/technology of choice“Free” resourceA “clean” resource due to: Replacement of a “dirty” energy source (coal) and, No emissions associated with its useCan be utilized on underutilized land or on lands currently in commoditycrop production (“harvest” on the surface and “harvest” above thesurface)
Wind Energy Benefits No air emissions No fuel to mine, transport, or store No cooling water No water pollution No wastes
Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) 1920 :Invented by G. M. Darrieus (French Engineer): Darrieus Rotor 500 kW, 34m long was undertaken in 1980 by Sandia national Lab, USA but leaving the business in 1997
Common HAWT Construction Rotor• Blades are connected to a hub, which is connected to a shaft• Rotational speed will depend on blade geometry, number of blades, and wind speed (40 to 400 revolutions per minute typical speed range)• Gear box needed to increase speed to 1200-1800 RPM for generator
Number of Blades – One Rotor must move more rapidly to capture same amount of wind – Gearbox ratio reduced – Added weight of counterbalance negates some benefits of lighter design – Higher speed means more noise, visual, and wildlife impacts Blades easier to install because entire rotor can be assembled on ground Captures 10% less energy than two blade design Ultimately provide no cost savings
Number of Blades - Two Advantages & disadvantages similar to one blade Need teetering hub and or shock absorbers because of gyroscopic imbalances Capture 5% less energy than three blade designs
Number of Blades - Three Balance of gyroscopic forces Slower rotation – increases gearbox & transmission costs – More aesthetic, less noise, fewer bird strikes
Blade Composition Metal Steel – Heavy & expensive Aluminum – Lighter-weight and easy to work with turbine – Expensive – Subject to metal fatigue
Features of major Components & Systems Tubular Tower for better load carrying capacityTower Designed stiffness to eliminate critical natural frequencies Designed to reduce the dynamic stresses to minimum Load Separation plate inserted inside foundation for better stability and better load distribution. Ergonomically designed tower internals with necessary safety equipment, like fall arrester Superior cable management systems with specific designed clamp for less wear and tear while twisting Epoxy coating Ultrasonic and Radiography tests Less maintenance as compared to lattice
Technical specification Tower Nominal Power -1500 kW Rotor diameter - 82 m Hub height- 78.5m Rotor cone angle- 4.3° Swept area -5281 m2 Rotor speed (at rated power) -16.30 rpm Rotational speed 15.6 -18.4 rpm Tip speed (at rated power)- 70 m/s Blade length -40 m Generator Stator Voltage -690 V Speed at rated power and shortcut rotor- 1,511 rpm Start wind 4 m/s Stop wind 20 m/s
Turbines: Different Sizes and Applications Small (≤10 kW) • Homes (Grid-connected) Intermediate • Farms • Remote Applications (10-500 kW) • Village Power (e.g. battery changing, water pumping, telecom sites) • Hybrid Systems • Distributed Power Large (500 kW – 5 MW) • Central Station Wind Farms • Distributed Power • Offshore Wind
Wind Turbine Perspective for 1.5mw Workers Blade 112’ long Nacelle 56 tons Tower 3 sections
Wind Turbine Technology 2 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 MW Pt i 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 vw 25 i Wind Speed (m/s) Power curve for a 1.5 MW variable-speed, pitch- 40 controlled wind turbine. Note “flatness” of output 35 for wind speeds at or above rated value 30 Source: AWEA 25 W P v
Wind farmsSource: http://news.medill.northwestern.edu/chicago/news.aspx? Source: http://www.sharonpavey.org/luppitt-looking-forward-to-a-sustainable-id=100757&print=1 future/ Most wind turbines are rather small in generating capacity (e.g., 50 to 500 kW. There are some very large units to about 1 MW. At these power levels, many turbines are needed to obtain desirable power levels – typically well above 100 MW. The many turbines are often organized into ‘wind farms’ as shown here. 27
ADVANTAGES OF WIND POWER:1. The wind is free and with modern technology it can becaptured efficiently.2. Once the wind turbine is built the energy it produces does notcause green house gases or other pollutants.3. Although wind turbines can be very tall each takes up only asmall plot of land. This means that the land below can still beused. This is especially the case in agricultural areas as farmingcan still continue.4. Many people find wind farms an interesting feature of thelandscape.5. Remote areas that are not connected to the electricity powergrid can use wind turbines to produce their own supply.6. Wind turbines have a role to play in both the developed andthird world.7. Wind turbines are available in a range of sizes which means avast range of people and businesses can use them. Single
DISADVANTAGES OF WIND POWER :1. The strength of the wind is not constant and it varies from zero tostorm force. This means that wind turbines do not produce the sameamount of electricity all the time. There will be times when theyproduce no electricity at all.2. Many people feel that the countryside should be left untouched,without these large structures being built. The landscape should left inits natural form for everyone to enjoy.3. Wind turbines are noisy. Each one can generate the same level ofnoise as a family car travelling at 70 mph.4. Many people see large wind turbines as unsightly structures and notpleasant or interesting to look at. They disfigure the countryside andare generally ugly.5. When wind turbines are being manufactured some pollution isproduced. Therefore wind power does produce some pollution.6. Large wind farms are needed to provide entire communities withenough electricity. For example, the largest single turbine availabletoday can only provide enough electricity for 475 homes, when runningat full capacity. How many would be needed for a town of 100 000people?