Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Rockets
Rockets
Rockets
Rockets
Rockets
Rockets
Rockets
Rockets
Rockets
Rockets
Rockets
Rockets
Rockets
Rockets
Rockets
Rockets
Rockets
Rockets
Rockets
Rockets
Rockets
Rockets
Rockets
Rockets
Rockets
Rockets
Rockets
Rockets
Rockets
Rockets
Rockets
Rockets
Rockets
Rockets
Rockets
Rockets
Rockets
Rockets
Rockets
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Rockets

1,936

Published on

1 Comment
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,936
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
1
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Welcome Module 4: Rockets
  • 2. Welcome Module 4: Or…
  • 3. Welcome How To we this went from this In only 43 years
  • 4. Overview Module Learning Objectives Chapter 1 - History of Rockets • Identify historical facts about the Greeks, Chinese and British, and their roles in the development of rockets • Describe America’s early contributions to the development of rockets • List the early artificial and manned rocket launches ad their missions
  • 5. Overview Module Learning Objectives Chapter 2 - Rocket Principals • Define acceleration • Define inertia • Define thrust • Describe Newton’s Laws of Motion
  • 6. Overview Module Learning Objectives Chapter 3 - Rocket Systems and Controls • Identify the four major systems of a rocket • Describe the purpose of each of the four major systems of a rocket • Define Payload
  • 7. Chapter 1 History of Rockets Greece: First Rocket Engine • Hero designs steam-powered engine that embodies basic rocket engine principles • Probably a toy if built at all, never put to useful work
  • 8. Chapter 1 History of Rockets China: Gunpowder • 1st century AD, Chinese invent gunpowder • 1232, Chinese & Mongols use rockets as “arrows of flying fire” • Sticks kept rockets pointed in one direction
  • 9. Chapter 1 History of Rockets England & France: Improvements • Roger Bacon improves gunpowder • Jean Froissart develops tube launcher • Sir Isaac Newton develops laws of motion • COL William Congreve increases range • William Hale develops spin stabilization Rockets red glare
  • 10. Chapter 1 History of Rockets Tsiolkovsky: Father of Modern Astronautics • Proposed the idea of space exploration by rocket • Proposed the first liquid-propelled rocket • Stated that only the exhaust velocity of escaping gases limited the speed and range of a rocket
  • 11. Chapter 1 History of Rockets Goddard: Father of Modern Rocketry • First successful flight of liquid fuelled rocket in 1926 (fuelled by liquid oxygen & gasoline) • Developed multi-stage rockets for higher altitudes • Invented parachute recovery system • Developed first gyroscopic guidance system
  • 12. Chapter 1 History of Rockets Germany: The first missile • Oberth’s writes on space exploration • Develop V-2 missile under Werner Von Braun • V-2s captured after war split up between U.S. and U.S.S.R spur both rocket programs • Von Braun travels to U.S. to lead American program
  • 13. Chapter 1 History of Rockets The Space Race • U.S.S.R and U.S. both pursue military and scientific applications of rocketry • Soviets firsts: ICBM, satellite, and man in orbit • Kennedy pledges America will put a man on the moon and bring him back again only 20 days after Alan Shepard becomes the first American in space.
  • 14. Early American Rockets Redstone First live atomic missile test Lifts Alan Shepard’s Mercury spacecraft, Friendship 7, on 15-min suborbital flight - first American in space
  • 15. Early American Rockets Atlas First American ICBM Lifts John Glenn’s Mercury spacecraft, Freedom 7 - first American in orbit
  • 16. Early American Rockets Titan First two-stage American ICBM Also lifts all twelve Gemini spacecraft
  • 17. Chapter 1 History of Rockets The Apollo Program: 1961-1975 • Goal of achieving first manned moon landing accomplished on 20 JUL 1969 by Neil Armstrong • Only manned flights beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) • First loss of astronauts: Apollo 1 fire • Landed six flights, 12 humans, on the moon • Last moon landing: Apollo 17, 11-14 DEC 1972 • Required largest launch vehicle in history, before or since
  • 18. Early American Rockets Saturn Purpose-built for Apollo Largest rocket in history Saturn IB lifts Apollo to LEO Saturn V lifts Apollo to moon, Skylab to LEO
  • 19. Chapter 1 History of Rockets The Space Transportation System: 1972-2010? • Goal of reusable space plane to lower cost of spaceflight, the “Space Shuttle” was only supposed to be the first step • Due to budget cuts and technology limitations, it costs billions to fly the shuttle, and a newer “expendable” launch vehicle program is scheduled to replace it • First U.S. loss of astronauts during mission: Challenger • First U.S. loss of astronauts on reentry: Columbia
  • 20. American Rockets STS Orbiter spacecraft and main engines External tank supplies fuel to main engines at launch Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) complete launch system
  • 21. Chapter 1 History of Rockets The Constellation Launch System: 2015 to ? • Aries family of launch vehicles built around the space shuttle’s SRB • Aires I will launch Orion spacecraft to LEO • Ares V will be history’s new biggest rocket, launching Altair lunar lander and “Earth Departure Vehicle” for docking with Orion • Adapted Ares V could launch Orion to asteroid belt • Return to Lunar Landing mission: Altair 2 / Orion 15 scheduled for June 2019
  • 22. American Rockets Aries Part of Constellation Program Ares I 1st stage based on 5.5 segment SRB w/new 2nd stage Ares V Two 5.5 segment SRBs, four new engines on ET-based 1st stage w/new 2nd stage
  • 23. Chapter 2 Rocket Principles Basics • In its simplest form, a rocket is a chamber of pressurized gas, with an opening through which gas is allowed to escape • Thrust is the force needed to get a rocket traveling upward, overcoming weight and drag • Velocity is the speed something travels in distance per unit (miles per hour, kilometers per second) • Acceleration is the rate in change of velocity over time (miles per hour per hour, meters per second per second)
  • 24. Chapter 2 Rocket Principles Newton’s Laws • A body at rest will stay at rest, and a body in motion will remain in motion, unless acted upon by an outside force (inertia) • The net force on an object is equal to the mass of the object multiplied by its acceleration ( f = ma ) • Every action has an equal and opposite reaction ACTION REACTION
  • 25. Chapter 2 Rocket Principles Aerodynamic Forces • On an airplane, lift overcomes weight • On a rocket, thrust is used in opposition to weight
  • 26. Chapter 2 Rocket Principles Aerodynamic Forces • On an airplane, most aerodynamic force are generated by the wings and the tail surfaces • On a rocket, aerodynamic forces are generated by the fins, nose cone, and body tube (airframe)
  • 27. Chapter 2 Rocket Principles Aerodynamic Forces • For both airplane and rocket, the weight acts through the center of gravity while aerodynamic forces act through the center of pressure
  • 28. Chapter 2 Rocket Principles Aerodynamic Forces • While the magnitude and direction of the forces remain fairly constant for an airplane, the magnitude and direction of the forces acting on a rocket change dramatically during a typical flight
  • 29. Chapter 3 Rocket Systems and Controls Rocket Stability
  • 30. Chapter 3 Rocket Systems and Controls Rocket Systems • Airframe
  • 31. Chapter 3 Rocket Systems and Controls Rocket Systems • Airframe • Guidance
  • 32. Chapter 3 Rocket Systems and Controls Rocket Systems • Airframe • Guidance • Control
  • 33. Chapter 3 Rocket Systems and Controls Rocket Systems • Airframe • Guidance • Control • Propulsion
  • 34. Chapter 3 Rocket Systems and Controls Rocket Systems • Airframe Payload • Guidance • Control • Propulsion
  • 35. Chapter 3 Rocket Systems and Controls Rocket Controls
  • 36. Chapter 3 Rocket Systems and Controls Rocket Propulsion Systems
  • 37. Chapter 3 Rocket Systems and Controls Rocket Propulsion Systems: Solid Fuel “Grain”
  • 38. Chapter 3 Rocket Systems and Controls Rocket Propulsion Systems: The Nozzle COMBUSTION THROAT EXPANDING GAS CHAMBER Transonic Low Pressure High Pressure Flow HIGH Velocity Low Velocity
  • 39. Chapter 3 Rocket Systems and Controls Rocket Propulsion Systems: The Nozzle

×