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Earthquakes

What Is An Earthquake? Click here to find out

Adapted from powerpoint by Liz LaRosa http://www.middleschools...
What is an earthquake?
• Used to describe both sudden slip on a fault, and the resulting
ground shaking and radiated seism...
Three Types of Faults

Strike-Slip

Animation of fault movement

Reverse

Normal
Normal fault
Pulls on the crust stretching rock so that it becomes thinner (like pulling
on bubble gum) =
Occurs when plat...
What type of fault?
normal

Hanging wall

Foot wall

http://www.bgs.ac.uk/eqr/GeoD_Structures.htm
What causes earthquakes?
• Tectonic plates move past each other causing
stress. Stress causes the rock to deform
– What ty...
Strike – slip fault
Rocks on either side of fault slip past each other sideways with little
up or down motion What type of...
Fault rupture across road in western Kaynasli, right-lateral strike slip displacement was
about 4.0 m (13 feet) at this lo...
Reverse fault
Pushes on the crust squeezing rock until it folds or breaks (like a trash
compactor) =
Occurs when plates ar...
What type of fault?

reverse

Hanging wall

Foot wall

http://geologicalintroduction.baffl.co.uk
What type of fault?

http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/EarthSC-102VisualsIndex.HTM
Focus – 1. point inside the Earth where an
earthquake begins
Epicenter – 2. point on Earth’s surface above focus where
ear...
How Seismographs Work
A seismograph is an instrument used for recording the intensity and
duration of an earthquake.

the ...
Earthquakes
• How are earthquakes measured?

Seismogram –
seismic wave
display record

Seismograph
machine
Seismic Waves
Primary Waves (P Waves)

• A type of seismic wave that compresses
and expands the ground
• The first wave to arrive at an
...
Secondary Waves (S Waves)
• A type of seismic wave that moves the
ground up and down or side to side

http://daphne.meccah...
Comparing Seismic Waves
Surface Waves
• Move along the Earth’s surface
• Produces motion in the upper crust
– Motion can be up and down
– Motion c...
How do scientists calculate how far a location is
from the epicenter of an earthquake?

• Scientists calculate the differe...
Typical Seismogram
How much time elapsed between the arrival of the
P wave (start) and the arrival of the S wave (finish)?...
Locating Earthquakes

http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/EarthSC-102VisualsIndex.HTM
Locating Earthquakes

http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/EarthSC-102VisualsIndex.HTM
Now you are going to be seismologists
and locate an Earthquake

http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/EarthSC-102VisualsIndex.HTM

Go...
National Geographic earthquake information
How are Earthquakes Measured?
Richter Scale
A logarithmic scale
used to express the
total amount of
energy released
magnit...
How are Earthquakes Measured?
Mercalli Intensity Scale
A scale of earthquake intensity based on ___________
observed effec...
Earthquake Waves & Earth’s Interior

Seismic wave animation
Seismic
Waves in
the Earth
Click here for animation

http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/EarthSC-102VisualsIndex.HTM
Tsunamis
Click here for explanation of a tsunami

http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/EarthSC-102VisualsIndex.HTM
Formation of a tsunami
a large ocean wave usually caused by an underwater earthquake
or a volcanic explosion.

PBS –tsunam...
With typical waves, water flows in circles, but with a tsunami, water
flows straight. This is why tsunamis cause so much d...
Tsunami Warning System

http://isu.indstate.edu/jspeer/Earth&Sky/EarthCh11.ppt
Review Questions
1. A large ocean wave usually caused by an
underwater earthquake or a volcanic explosion.
tsunami

2. Use...
How are Earthquakes Measured?
3. Which one uses a logarithmic scale to express the
total amount of energy released or magn...
What type of fault is shown by each picture?

1.
2.

Normal

Reverse

3.

Transverse
or strike-slip
S-wave
Surface or
Love waves
What type of fault?

Source: indiana.edu
http://geologicalintroduction.baffl.co.uk

A
Hanging wall has moved upward
Revers...
Focus – 1. point inside the Earth where an
earthquake begins
Epicenter – 2. point on Earth’s surface above focus where
ear...
People walk along a damaged road in the province
of Bohol on Tuesday, October 15, 2013.

Do you think this was a major ear...
Yes, it was a major quake.
It crumbled a number of buildings

Such as this church

7.1 magnitude earthquake hit the Philip...
Earthquakes

3. Surface
1.

P-wave

2. S-wave

Seismogram
4. ____________
seismic wave
display record

5. Seismograph
____...
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Earthquakes ppt for class

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  • Liz LaRosa http://www.middleschoolscience.com 2009 for my 5th grade science class 2009
  • Normal fault - Results in hanging wall slipping downward
  • Transform plate boundary showing shearing stress.
  • Reverse fault – hanging wall has moved upward
  • Contrary to intuition, an earthquake does not make the pendulum swing. Instead, the pendulum remains fixed as the ground moves beneath it. A pendulum with a short period (left) moves along with the support and registers no motion. A pendulum with a long period (right) tends to remain in place while the support moves.The boundary between the two types of behavior is the natural period of the pendulum. Only motions faster than the natural period will be detected; any motion slower will not. 
  • Approximately 5 minutes and 20 seconds.
  • A – reverse fault - hanging wall has moved upwardB - Strike-slip fault // Source: indiana.edu
  • Transcript of "Earthquakes ppt for class"

    1. 1. Earthquakes What Is An Earthquake? Click here to find out Adapted from powerpoint by Liz LaRosa http://www.middleschoolscience.com 2009
    2. 2. What is an earthquake? • Used to describe both sudden slip on a fault, and the resulting ground shaking and radiated seismic energy caused by the slip • Caused by volcanic or plate activity, http://eqseis.geosc.psu.edu The map above shows the distribution of earthquakes with magnitudes greater than 5.0 that occurred between 1965 and 1995.
    3. 3. Three Types of Faults Strike-Slip Animation of fault movement Reverse Normal
    4. 4. Normal fault Pulls on the crust stretching rock so that it becomes thinner (like pulling on bubble gum) = Occurs when plates are moving apart Hanging wall Foot wall Results in hanging wall slipping downward animation
    5. 5. What type of fault? normal Hanging wall Foot wall http://www.bgs.ac.uk/eqr/GeoD_Structures.htm
    6. 6. What causes earthquakes? • Tectonic plates move past each other causing stress. Stress causes the rock to deform – What type of fault boundary is this? transform – What type of stress is shown? shearing
    7. 7. Strike – slip fault Rocks on either side of fault slip past each other sideways with little up or down motion What type of stress is produced? Occurs at a transform plate boundary Animation of strike-slip motion
    8. 8. Fault rupture across road in western Kaynasli, right-lateral strike slip displacement was about 4.0 m (13 feet) at this location http://www.geerassociation.org/GEER_Post%20EQ%2 0Reports/Duzce_1999/kaynasli1.htm
    9. 9. Reverse fault Pushes on the crust squeezing rock until it folds or breaks (like a trash compactor) = Occurs when plates are moving together Hanging wall Foot wall Results in hanging wall slipping upward animation
    10. 10. What type of fault? reverse Hanging wall Foot wall http://geologicalintroduction.baffl.co.uk
    11. 11. What type of fault? http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/EarthSC-102VisualsIndex.HTM
    12. 12. Focus – 1. point inside the Earth where an earthquake begins Epicenter – 2. point on Earth’s surface above focus where earthquake is FELT most strongly 2 1
    13. 13. How Seismographs Work A seismograph is an instrument used for recording the intensity and duration of an earthquake. the pendulum remains fixed as the ground moves beneath it http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/EarthSC-102VisualsIndex.HTM
    14. 14. Earthquakes • How are earthquakes measured? Seismogram – seismic wave display record Seismograph machine
    15. 15. Seismic Waves
    16. 16. Primary Waves (P Waves) • A type of seismic wave that compresses and expands the ground • The first wave to arrive at an earthquake http://daphne.meccahosting.com/~a0000e89/insideearth2.htm
    17. 17. Secondary Waves (S Waves) • A type of seismic wave that moves the ground up and down or side to side http://daphne.meccahosting.com/~a0000e89/insideearth2.htm
    18. 18. Comparing Seismic Waves
    19. 19. Surface Waves • Move along the Earth’s surface • Produces motion in the upper crust – Motion can be up and down – Motion can be around – Motion can be back and forth • Travel more slowly than S and P waves • More destructive Animation of wave types
    20. 20. How do scientists calculate how far a location is from the epicenter of an earthquake? • Scientists calculate the difference between arrival times of the P waves and S waves • The further away an earthquake is, the greater the time between the arrival of the P waves and the S waves
    21. 21. Typical Seismogram How much time elapsed between the arrival of the P wave (start) and the arrival of the S wave (finish)? start http://isu.indstate.edu/jspeer/Earth&Sky/EarthCh11.ppt finish
    22. 22. Locating Earthquakes http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/EarthSC-102VisualsIndex.HTM
    23. 23. Locating Earthquakes http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/EarthSC-102VisualsIndex.HTM
    24. 24. Now you are going to be seismologists and locate an Earthquake http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/EarthSC-102VisualsIndex.HTM Go to: http://tinyurl.com/11quake13 Click here to go to virtual earthquake site
    25. 25. National Geographic earthquake information
    26. 26. How are Earthquakes Measured? Richter Scale A logarithmic scale used to express the total amount of energy released magnitude ___________ of an earthquake. Its values typically fall between 0 and 9, with each increase of 1 representing a 10-fold _________ increase in energy.
    27. 27. How are Earthquakes Measured? Mercalli Intensity Scale A scale of earthquake intensity based on ___________ observed effects and ranging from I (detectable only with instruments) to XII (causing almost total destruction). Click for Interactive Demo Go to http://tinyurl.com/13quake13
    28. 28. Earthquake Waves & Earth’s Interior Seismic wave animation
    29. 29. Seismic Waves in the Earth Click here for animation http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/EarthSC-102VisualsIndex.HTM
    30. 30. Tsunamis Click here for explanation of a tsunami http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/EarthSC-102VisualsIndex.HTM
    31. 31. Formation of a tsunami a large ocean wave usually caused by an underwater earthquake or a volcanic explosion. PBS –tsunami animation http://isu.indstate.edu/jspeer/Earth&Sky/EarthCh11.ppt
    32. 32. With typical waves, water flows in circles, but with a tsunami, water flows straight. This is why tsunamis cause so much damage! Click here for Japan helicopter view of tsunami
    33. 33. Tsunami Warning System http://isu.indstate.edu/jspeer/Earth&Sky/EarthCh11.ppt
    34. 34. Review Questions 1. A large ocean wave usually caused by an underwater earthquake or a volcanic explosion. tsunami 2. Used to describe both a sudden slip on a fault, and the resulting ground shaking and radiated seismic energy caused by the slip earthquake
    35. 35. How are Earthquakes Measured? 3. Which one uses a logarithmic scale to express the total amount of energy released or magnitude of an earthquake. Richter Scale 4. Which uses a scale of earthquake intensity based on observed effects and ranging from I (detectable only with instruments) to XII (causing almost total destruction). Modified Mercalli Scale
    36. 36. What type of fault is shown by each picture? 1. 2. Normal Reverse 3. Transverse or strike-slip
    37. 37. S-wave
    38. 38. Surface or Love waves
    39. 39. What type of fault? Source: indiana.edu http://geologicalintroduction.baffl.co.uk A Hanging wall has moved upward Reverse fault B Strike –slip or transverse fault
    40. 40. Focus – 1. point inside the Earth where an earthquake begins Epicenter – 2. point on Earth’s surface above focus where earthquake is FELT most strongly 2 1
    41. 41. People walk along a damaged road in the province of Bohol on Tuesday, October 15, 2013. Do you think this was a major earthquake? Why or why not?
    42. 42. Yes, it was a major quake. It crumbled a number of buildings Such as this church 7.1 magnitude earthquake hit the Philippines
    43. 43. Earthquakes 3. Surface 1. P-wave 2. S-wave Seismogram 4. ____________ seismic wave display record 5. Seismograph __________ machine
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