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A presentation that I used to introduce my year four students to the topic of earthquakes.

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  1. 1. Earthquake!!<br />Year Four<br /><br />
  2. 2. Today’s Lesson<br />What you will learn:<br />The structure of the Earth<br />What this has to do with earthquakes<br />How and why earthquakes form<br />How earthquakes move <br />How an earthquake damages land and structures<br />How earthquakes are measured<br /><br />
  3. 3. What did you see happening in the animation?<br />
  4. 4. Tectonic Plates<br />Tectonic plates form part of one of the earth’s layers.<br />They are like pieces of a jigsaw <br />They are constantly being pushed around, bumping and grinding into each other - when this happens, an earthquake usually occurs <br />Tectonic plates move continents at approx 50-100mm each year <br />notes!<br />
  5. 5. Now lets watch it again……<br /><br />
  6. 6. Australian Earthquakes?<br />Where do you think the most earthquakes would occur?<br />Do we get earthquakes in Australia?<br /><br /><br />
  7. 7. The Layers of the Earth<br />Does anyone know any of the names of the layers of the Earth?<br /><br />
  8. 8. The Inner Core<br />Hottest part of the Earth<br />Possibly as hot as the Sun<br />Solid sphere 2500km across – the distance from Sydney to Cairns!<br />notes!<br /> Outer Core <br />
  9. 9. The Outer Core<br />Liquid layer which is 2200km thick<br />Temperature approximately 5000 degrees<br />Made up of hot, molten lava<br />notes!<br /> Mantle<br />
  10. 10. The Lower and Upper Mantle Lithosphere<br />Lower – made from solid rock<br />Upper - also known as the lithosphere<br />200km thick<br />Broken into the tectonic plates – oceanic and continental<br />notes!<br /> Crust<br />
  11. 11. The Crust<br />25km of loose rock<br />Makes up less than 1% of the Earth<br />We live on the top of the crust<br />This is the part of the Earth that gets broken and split in an earthquake<br />notes!<br />
  12. 12. Blanket Activity<br />Two helpers needed<br />Each to push the ends of the blanket towards each other <br />What happens?<br />What is this representing?<br />
  13. 13. A bridge across a tectonic plate that has divided<br />How did this happen?<br />
  14. 14. How?<br />So how does an earthquake happen?<br />Using all of this new knowledge – you tell me!<br />notes!<br />
  15. 15. Faults<br />Fault- an area or line along a tectonic plate that the released energy from an earthquake travels along. The earth’s crust is pushed up or down, or over or under when this happens, creating different size faults – like scars on rock or even mountains!<br />notes!<br /><br />
  16. 16. Focus and Epicenter<br />The underground starting point of the earthquake is called the focus<br />The above ground starting point of an earthquake is called the epicentre <br />notes!<br />
  17. 17. Seismic Waves<br />Waves of force that start from the focus and travel outwards <br />There are primary (p-waves) and secondary waves (s-waves)<br />p-waves occur first, then s-waves <br />Seismic waves are what causes the shaking and splitting of the earth<br />Watch this animation to see how they can travel ALL over the world!<br />notes!<br /><br />
  18. 18. Richter Scale<br />Earthquake strength is classified on the Richter Scale<br />
  19. 19. Guess the Magnitude<br />5.4<br />
  20. 20. Guess the Magnitude<br />6.9<br />
  21. 21. Guess the Magnitude<br />8.0<br />
  22. 22. 2004 Earthquake<br />On Boxing Day, 2004, a 9.3 earthquake occurred along Sumartra’s west coast<br />This was one of the deadliest natural disasters of all time – but not because of the earthquake<br />The focus was on an oceanic tectonic plate, which caused a deadly tsunami that hit Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India and Thailand the hardest<br /><br />
  23. 23. Questions?<br />Check the question chart – have we answered everything?<br /><br />