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# Earthquakes ppt for class

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This is the earthquake power point you saw in class. Feel free to take notes on it or view the animations again.

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• Liz LaRosa http://www.middleschoolscience.com 2009 for my 5th grade science class 2009
• Normal fault - Results in hanging wall slipping downward
• Transform plate boundary showing shearing stress.
• Reverse fault – hanging wall has moved upward
• Contrary to intuition, an earthquake does not make the pendulum swing. Instead, the pendulum remains fixed as the ground moves beneath it. A pendulum with a short period (left) moves along with the support and registers no motion. A pendulum with a long period (right) tends to remain in place while the support moves.The boundary between the two types of behavior is the natural period of the pendulum. Only motions faster than the natural period will be detected; any motion slower will not.
• Approximately 5 minutes and 20 seconds.
• A – reverse fault - hanging wall has moved upwardB - Strike-slip fault // Source: indiana.edu
• ### Earthquakes ppt for class

1. 1. Earthquakes What Is An Earthquake? Click here to find out Adapted from powerpoint by Liz LaRosa http://www.middleschoolscience.com 2009
2. 2. What is an earthquake? • Used to describe both sudden slip on a fault, and the resulting ground shaking and radiated seismic energy caused by the slip • Caused by volcanic or plate activity, http://eqseis.geosc.psu.edu The map above shows the distribution of earthquakes with magnitudes greater than 5.0 that occurred between 1965 and 1995.
3. 3. Three Types of Faults Strike-Slip Animation of fault movement Reverse Normal
4. 4. Normal fault Pulls on the crust stretching rock so that it becomes thinner (like pulling on bubble gum) = Occurs when plates are moving apart Hanging wall Foot wall Results in hanging wall slipping downward animation
5. 5. What type of fault? normal Hanging wall Foot wall http://www.bgs.ac.uk/eqr/GeoD_Structures.htm
6. 6. What causes earthquakes? • Tectonic plates move past each other causing stress. Stress causes the rock to deform – What type of fault boundary is this? transform – What type of stress is shown? shearing
7. 7. Strike – slip fault Rocks on either side of fault slip past each other sideways with little up or down motion What type of stress is produced? Occurs at a transform plate boundary Animation of strike-slip motion
8. 8. Fault rupture across road in western Kaynasli, right-lateral strike slip displacement was about 4.0 m (13 feet) at this location http://www.geerassociation.org/GEER_Post%20EQ%2 0Reports/Duzce_1999/kaynasli1.htm
9. 9. Reverse fault Pushes on the crust squeezing rock until it folds or breaks (like a trash compactor) = Occurs when plates are moving together Hanging wall Foot wall Results in hanging wall slipping upward animation
10. 10. What type of fault? reverse Hanging wall Foot wall http://geologicalintroduction.baffl.co.uk
11. 11. What type of fault? http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/EarthSC-102VisualsIndex.HTM
12. 12. Focus – 1. point inside the Earth where an earthquake begins Epicenter – 2. point on Earth’s surface above focus where earthquake is FELT most strongly 2 1
13. 13. How Seismographs Work A seismograph is an instrument used for recording the intensity and duration of an earthquake. the pendulum remains fixed as the ground moves beneath it http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/EarthSC-102VisualsIndex.HTM
14. 14. Earthquakes • How are earthquakes measured? Seismogram – seismic wave display record Seismograph machine
15. 15. Seismic Waves
16. 16. Primary Waves (P Waves) • A type of seismic wave that compresses and expands the ground • The first wave to arrive at an earthquake http://daphne.meccahosting.com/~a0000e89/insideearth2.htm
17. 17. Secondary Waves (S Waves) • A type of seismic wave that moves the ground up and down or side to side http://daphne.meccahosting.com/~a0000e89/insideearth2.htm
18. 18. Comparing Seismic Waves
19. 19. Surface Waves • Move along the Earth’s surface • Produces motion in the upper crust – Motion can be up and down – Motion can be around – Motion can be back and forth • Travel more slowly than S and P waves • More destructive Animation of wave types
20. 20. How do scientists calculate how far a location is from the epicenter of an earthquake? • Scientists calculate the difference between arrival times of the P waves and S waves • The further away an earthquake is, the greater the time between the arrival of the P waves and the S waves
21. 21. Typical Seismogram How much time elapsed between the arrival of the P wave (start) and the arrival of the S wave (finish)? start http://isu.indstate.edu/jspeer/Earth&Sky/EarthCh11.ppt finish
22. 22. Locating Earthquakes http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/EarthSC-102VisualsIndex.HTM
23. 23. Locating Earthquakes http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/EarthSC-102VisualsIndex.HTM
24. 24. Now you are going to be seismologists and locate an Earthquake http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/EarthSC-102VisualsIndex.HTM Go to: http://tinyurl.com/11quake13 Click here to go to virtual earthquake site
25. 25. National Geographic earthquake information
26. 26. How are Earthquakes Measured? Richter Scale A logarithmic scale used to express the total amount of energy released magnitude ___________ of an earthquake. Its values typically fall between 0 and 9, with each increase of 1 representing a 10-fold _________ increase in energy.
27. 27. How are Earthquakes Measured? Mercalli Intensity Scale A scale of earthquake intensity based on ___________ observed effects and ranging from I (detectable only with instruments) to XII (causing almost total destruction). Click for Interactive Demo Go to http://tinyurl.com/13quake13
28. 28. Earthquake Waves & Earth’s Interior Seismic wave animation
29. 29. Seismic Waves in the Earth Click here for animation http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/EarthSC-102VisualsIndex.HTM