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people of the french revolution

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  • 1. PEOPLE OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
  • 2. PEASANTS (Third Estate) 24 million peasants Upset with taxes, fees to nobles, hunting rights, free labour, and military service. Poor harvests and disease forced many to move to cities.
  • 3. BOURGEOISIE (Third Estate) The new Middle Class - 2 million strong. Believed in power of the people and want to take part in government. Also pay very high taxes. Estates General always outvotes you 2 to 1 (0ne vote per Estate).
  • 4. NOBLES (Second Estate)  200, 000 people or 2% of population.  Good jobs and live well.  Although privileged they have little power.  Pushed for the Estates General to reopen - closed for 175 yrs.  Also want to be included in government.
  • 5. CLERGY (First Estate) The higher clergy are priviledged. Free of taxes and protected by feudal law. Collect tithes/taxes (10% of income) Most country priest are poor and do not enjoy the privileges set aside for the upper clergy.
  • 6. MARIE ANTOINETTE Queen of France 18 yrs. Old Spends a great deal of money. Responsible for much of France’s great debt.
  • 7. LOUIS XVI  Absolute ruler of France.  Inherited a huge debt.  Pays debt by raising taxes.  Finance minister wants to tax nobles.  Lettres de Cachet allows you to imprison without trial.  Cannot get a loan without calling the Estates General.
  • 8. THE REVOLUTION BEGINS Reasons for the Revolution  - French compared themselves to the U.S.A.(republic) and Britain(const. monarch) - Middle Class and poor paying all the taxes. - Famine & Starvation - 40 000 abandoned kids. - Britain's Industrial Revolution left the French unemployed. “THE CRISIS” The philosophes would lead riots against the government.
  • 9. THE ESTATES GENERAL ‘French Parliament’  To try and solve problems king calls Estates General.  1st Estate = clergy / 2nd Estate = nobles / 3rd estate = middle class.  - PROBLEM - even though 3rd Estate is the largest => BLOC VOTE (outvoted 2 to 1).  - 3rd Estate is frustrated and forms National Assembly => TENNIS COURT OATH.  Remain until new form of government is created.  King is forced to send the two other Estates Tennis Court Oath
  • 10. THE FALL OF THE BASTILLE July 14, 1789, a great mob attacked the royal prison, “The Bastille”, to free political prisoners. The King sent troops to defend it, but the soldiers joined the rioters. Fr. Citizens formed a new National Guard led by Lafayette Seven political prisoners were released and the warden’s head was paraded through the streets.
  • 11. BASTILLE DAY JULY 14 ‘The Celebration of Democracy’
  • 12. THE GREAT FEAR Rural peasants feared the Aristocrats would stop the revolution. To ensure success they: - killed hundreds of nobles. - burned their homes. -burned feudal certificates and papers.
  • 13. THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY AUGUST, 1789, @ VERSAILLES  Abolished feudalism and ended serfdom.  Declared all people equal before the law.  Created the Declaration of the Rights of Man => people’s freedoms (thought, speech religion, security and property,limited power of gov’t).  - abolish nobility titles and called all people citizens.  - seize church assets. Declaration of the Versailles
  • 14. KING LOUIS 1791 King Louis, family, and many other emigres tried to leave France for other countries. It was hoped they could gain support to restore his monarchy. NOTE – Other nations felt they could be next. (ie. Austria) They were caught in disguise, proving he was untrustworthy and was arrested and forced to sign the new constitution.
  • 15. LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY - 1791 Tried to establish a workable government but was doomed to failure.  Radicals wanted a Republic.  Moderates wanted a Constitutional Monarchy.  Monarchists wanted to bring back the King. The National Assembly would give way to the Legislative Assembly.
  • 16. THE POLITICAL CLUBS THE JACOBINS -The radicals. -Responsible for the ‘Reign of Terror’. -Would win the power struggle. THE GIRONDISTS -Viewed as too conservative. -Lost power struggle. -Most were sent to the guillotine. THE SANS-CULOTTES Mostly poor city folk. Against bourgeoisie & reforms to help the rich. Very violent – attacked anyone against the revolution. Supported the radicals. Wanted the gov’t to lower prices &give bread to the poor.
  • 17. LEADERS OF THE REVOLUTION MARAT DANTON ROBESPIERRE - Opposed any deals with the monarchy. - Prepared to execute the King. -Destroy anyone who has sympathy for the ‘old system’. - Marat would be killed but Danton & Robespierre would take control of the National Assembly.
  • 18. THE END OF A MONARCHY The newly elected National Convention tried and executed “Citizen Louis Capet”. Jan. 21, 1793. Marie Antoinette was executed in October.
  • 19. THE REIGN OF TERROR 1793-1794 The Jacobins & the sans-coulottes took control. - Girondists were arrested and imprisoned. - Law of Suspects - allowed the arrest of anyone of nobility or office. - no citizenship = guillotine - food speculators were guillotined - grainaries & bakeries = state controlled. - anyone who questioned Robespierre was guilotined => even Danton and sans- coulottes leaders. - 37 000 people guillotined.
  • 20. THE FALL OF ROBESPIERRE Robespierre destroyed all opposition. The positives - metric system. - more efficient army. - new schools & universities. - took the emigres’ property. Robespierre continued to condemn others but the people turned on him. “The Revolution devoured its own children.” He tried to shoot himself but was arrested and guillotined.
  • 21. THE DIRECTORY People grew tired of Robespierre and his dictatorship. IRONY - The new gov’t was replaced by people with $$$. The days of equality were over but soon Napoleon would rule France.
  • 22. FRENCH REVOLUTION SUMMARY FOUR STAGES OF THE REVOLUTION: 1. The Old Regime 2. A Moderate Start 3. The Extremists 4. The Reign Of Terror