24 million peasants
Upset with taxes, fees to nobles, hunting
rights, free labour, and military service.
Poor harvests and disease forced many
to move to cities.
The new Middle Class - 2 million strong.
Believed in power of the people and
want to take part in government.
Also pay very high taxes.
Estates General always outvotes
you 2 to 1 (0ne vote per Estate).
200, 000 people or 2% of population.
Good jobs and live well.
Although privileged they have little power.
Pushed for the Estates General to reopen -
closed for 175 yrs.
Also want to be included in government.
The higher clergy are priviledged.
Free of taxes and protected by feudal
Collect tithes/taxes (10% of income)
Most country priest are poor and do not
enjoy the privileges set aside for the
Queen of France
18 yrs. Old
Spends a great deal of money.
Responsible for much of France’s great
Absolute ruler of France.
Inherited a huge debt.
Pays debt by raising taxes.
Finance minister wants to tax nobles.
Lettres de Cachet allows you to imprison
Cannot get a loan without calling the Estates
THE REVOLUTION BEGINS
Reasons for the Revolution
- French compared themselves to
the U.S.A.(republic) and
- Middle Class and poor paying all
- Famine & Starvation - 40 000
- Britain's Industrial Revolution left
the French unemployed.
The philosophes would lead riots
against the government.
THE ESTATES GENERAL
To try and solve problems king
calls Estates General.
1st Estate = clergy / 2nd Estate = nobles /
3rd estate = middle class.
- PROBLEM - even though 3rd Estate is the largest
=> BLOC VOTE (outvoted 2 to 1).
- 3rd Estate is frustrated and forms National
Assembly => TENNIS COURT OATH.
Remain until new form of government is created.
King is forced to send the two other Estates
Tennis Court Oath
THE FALL OF THE BASTILLE
July 14, 1789, a great
mob attacked the royal
prison, “The Bastille”, to
free political prisoners.
The King sent troops
to defend it, but the
soldiers joined the rioters.
Fr. Citizens formed
a new National
Guard led by
Seven political prisoners
were released and the warden’s
head was paraded through
‘The Celebration of
THE GREAT FEAR
Rural peasants feared the
Aristocrats would stop the
revolution. To ensure
- killed hundreds of nobles.
- burned their homes.
-burned feudal certificates
AUGUST, 1789, @ VERSAILLES
Abolished feudalism and ended
Declared all people equal before
Created the Declaration of the
Rights of Man => people’s freedoms
(thought, speech religion, security and
property,limited power of gov’t).
- abolish nobility titles and called
all people citizens.
- seize church assets.
Declaration of the
King Louis, family, and many
other emigres tried to leave
France for other countries.
It was hoped they could gain
support to restore his monarchy.
NOTE – Other nations felt they
could be next. (ie. Austria)
They were caught in disguise, proving
he was untrustworthy and was arrested
and forced to sign the new constitution.
Tried to establish a workable government but
was doomed to failure.
Radicals wanted a Republic.
Moderates wanted a Constitutional Monarchy.
Monarchists wanted to bring back the King.
The National Assembly would give way to the
-Responsible for the
‘Reign of Terror’.
-Would win the power struggle.
-Viewed as too conservative.
-Lost power struggle.
-Most were sent to the guillotine.
Mostly poor city folk.
Against bourgeoisie & reforms to help the rich.
Very violent – attacked anyone against the revolution.
Supported the radicals.
Wanted the gov’t to lower prices &give bread to the poor.
LEADERS OF THE
MARAT DANTON ROBESPIERRE
- Opposed any deals with the monarchy.
- Prepared to execute the King.
-Destroy anyone who has sympathy for the ‘old system’.
- Marat would be killed but Danton & Robespierre would take
control of the National Assembly.
THE END OF A
The newly elected
tried and executed
“Citizen Louis Capet”.
Jan. 21, 1793.
Marie Antoinette was
executed in October.
THE REIGN OF TERROR
The Jacobins & the sans-coulottes took control.
- Girondists were arrested and imprisoned.
- Law of Suspects - allowed the arrest of
anyone of nobility or office.
- no citizenship = guillotine
- food speculators were guillotined
- grainaries & bakeries = state controlled.
- anyone who questioned Robespierre was
guilotined => even Danton and sans-
- 37 000 people guillotined.
THE FALL OF
Robespierre destroyed all opposition.
The positives - metric system.
- more efficient army.
- new schools & universities.
- took the emigres’ property.
Robespierre continued to condemn others
but the people turned on him. “The Revolution
devoured its own children.” He tried to shoot
himself but was arrested and guillotined.
People grew tired of Robespierre and his
IRONY - The new gov’t was replaced
by people with $$$. The days of
equality were over but soon
Napoleon would rule France.
FOUR STAGES OF THE REVOLUTION:
1. The Old Regime
2. A Moderate Start
3. The Extremists
4. The Reign Of Terror