Romantic period

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A slide presentation on the music of the Romantic period, including links to 18 musical examples.

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Romantic period

  1. 1. The Romantic Period circa 1820 - 1900
  2. 2. Periods of Western Musical History 1. Medieval (476 A.D. to 1400 A.D.) 2. Renaissance (1400 to 1600 A.D.) 3. Baroque (1600 to 1750) 4. Classical (1750 to 1820) 5. Romantic (1820 to 1900) 6. Impressionist (1875 to 1925) 7. Modern (1900 to 1960) 8. “Post-Modern” (1960-present) (aka “Contemporary”)
  3. 3. Periods of Western Musical History 1. Medieval (476 A.D. to 1400 A.D.) 2. Renaissance (1400 to 1600 A.D.) 3. Baroque (1600 to 1750) 4. Classical (1750 to 1820) 5. Romantic (1820 to 1900) 6. Impressionist (1875 to 1925) 7. Modern (1900 to 1960) 8. “Post-Modern” (1960-present) (aka “Contemporary”)
  4. 4. Romanticism (also known as the Romantic Era or the "Romantic Period') was an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Europe, and gained strength in reaction to the Industrial Revolution. In part, it was a revolt against aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment and a reaction against the scientific rationalization of nature. Romanticism was embodied most strongly in the visual arts, music and literature.
  5. 5. “Liberty Leading The People” (1830) by French Romantic period painter Eugène Delacroix
  6. 6. “Wanderer Above the Sea of Fog” by the German Romantic painter Caspar David Friedrich (1774 – 1840)
  7. 7. Characteristics of Romantic Period Music 1. Individuality of musical style with emphasis on self-expression 2. Development of new harmonies, including chromatic harmonies - harmonies that use all the keys of the piano keyboard - the black keys and the white keys - together. 3. Development of "program music" – music that depicts a story or scene
  8. 8. 4. Development of "nationalism" in music, such as French music, Spanish music, Hungarian music, Czech, music, etc., incorporating native folk music 5. Greater variety of mood, atmosphere and tone color 6. Expanded orchestra size for many new compositions, including large brass sections, expanded woodwind sections and the addition of new instruments, such as English horn, bass clarinet, contrabassoon and added percussion.
  9. 9. 7. Development of a wider range of musical dynamics - (volume) - from very soft ("pianissimo") to very loud ("fortissimo") often encompassing soaring musical high points 8. Greater flexibility of tempo, (musical speed) incorporating the increased use of accelerandos (speeding up) and ritardandos (slowing down), as well as extensive use of rubato (the bending and stretching of tempo/rhythm).
  10. 10. Composers of the Romantic Period Ludwig van Beethoven German; 1770-1827 9 Symphonies, 5 Piano Concertos, 1 Violin Concerto Many Works for Piano Chamber Music 1 Opera
  11. 11. Composers of the Romantic Period Franz Schubert Austrian; 1797-1828 9 Symphonies, 600+ Songs, Chamber Music Solo Piano Music Unfinished Symphony (0’47”) Gretchen am Spinnrade
  12. 12. Composers of the Romantic Period Gioacchino Rossini Italian; 1792-1868 Many Operas including The Barber of Seville and William Tell William Tell Overture Part 1 Part 2 / (Finale: 2’44”) Largo al Factotum
  13. 13. Composers of the Romantic Period Hector Berlioz French; 1803-1869 Symphonies Operas Overtures Symphonie Fantastique March to the Scaffold
  14. 14. Composers of the Romantic Period Felix Mendelssohn German; 1809-1847 5 Symphonies, Concertos, Overtures, Chamber Music Choral Music Overture to A Midsummer Night's
  15. 15. Composers of the Romantic Period Robert Schumann German; 1810-1856 Symphonies, 1 Piano Concerto Many Songs (Lieder) Piano Music Lied: "Ich grolle nicht"
  16. 16. Composers of the Romantic Period Frederic Chopin Polish; 1810-1849 Piano Music Chopin, (along with Liszt) was one of the two most important composers of piano music in the Romantic period. His works for solo piano are among the cornerstones of the piano repertoire. “Heroic” Polonaise in A-flat, Opus 53
  17. 17. Composers of the Romantic Period Franz Liszt Hungarian; 18111886 Piano Music, Tone Poems, 2 Piano Concertos Liszt is one of the most important composers of piano music in the Romantic period. Liebestraum
  18. 18. Composers of the Romantic Period Richard Wagner German; 1813-1883 Operas Wagner composed the most important German operas of the Romantic period including The Flying Dutchman, Lohengrin, Tannhauser, The Ring Operas and Tristan and Isolde. Prelude to Die Meistersinger
  19. 19. Composers of the Romantic Period Giuseppe Verdi Italian; 1813-1901 Operas Verdi was one of the two most important composers of Italian operas of the Romantic period, or any period of operatic history. [Aida, La Traviata, Rigoletto, Il Trovatore] "Libiamo" from La Traviata
  20. 20. Composers of the Romantic Period Anton Bruckner Austrian; 1824-1896 9 Symphonies, Choral Music Bruckner is best known for his symphonies, in which he expanded the symphonic form in both length and scope. Symphony No. 4 - Finale
  21. 21. Composers of the Romantic Period Johann Strauss Jr. Austrian; 18251899 Waltzes, Polkas, Operettas Known as the “Waltz King,” Johann Strauss, Jr. was the leading composer of “light” music during the Romantic period. On the Beautiful Blue Danube
  22. 22. Composers of the Romantic Period Johannes Brahms 1833-1897 4 Symphonies, Concertos, Piano Works, Songs, Chamber Music Brahms is considered to be one of the most important composers of the Romantic period. Symphony No. 4 - 1st Movement
  23. 23. Composers of the Romantic Period Peter Illych Tchaikovsky Russian; 1840-1893 6 Symphonies, Ballets, Concertos, Other Orchestral Works, Operas Tchaikovsky is also considered to be one of the most important composers of the Romantic period. Symphony No. 4 - Finale
  24. 24. Composers of the Romantic Period Antonin Dvorak Czech; 1841-1904 9 Symphonies, Concertos, Other Orchestral Works Chamber Music, Choral Music Dvorak is one of the most important composers of orchestral music of the late Romantic period. New World Symphony - Adagio
  25. 25. Composers of the Romantic Period Giacomo Puccini Italian; 1858-1924 Operas Puccini is one of the two most important composers of Italian opera in the Romantic period, or any period in operatic history. [La Boheme, Tosca, Madame Butterfly, Turandot Manon Lescaut] "O soave fanciulla" from La
  26. 26. Composers of the Romantic Period Richard Strauss German; 1864-1949 Tone Poems, Operas, Songs (Lieder) Richard Strauss is the composer of the most important tone poems ever composed, as well as the most important German operas in the post-Wagner Romantic era. Don Juan - Opening
  27. 27. Composers of the Romantic Period Gustav Mahler 1860-1911 9 Symphonies, Songs (Lieder) Mahler is the last great composer of symphonies in the school of Austrian & German composers that included Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert, Bruckner & Brahms. Symphony No. 2 - Finale - Ending
  28. 28. Composers of the Romantic Period Sergei Rachmaninoff Russian; 1873-1943 Concertos, Piano Music, Symphonies, Songs Rachmaninoff was one of the greatest pianists in history, as well as one of the last of the great Romantic composers. His life and career extended well into the Modern era of musical history. Concerto No. 2 for Piano - Opening

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