The French Revolution 1789-1815WORDS TO KNOWBOURGEOISIE- THE URBAN MIDDLE CLASS INCLUDING MERCHANTS,MANUFACTURERS AND PROFESSIONALS LIKE DOCTORS AND LAWYERSCOUP D’ETAT-SEIZURE OFF POWER BY FORCECONSERVATIVE-GROUP THAT DOES NOT WANT TO CHANGE EXISTINGCONDITIONSNATIONALISM- LOVE OF ONE’S COUNTRY RATHER THAN OF ONE’SNATIVE REGION.ESTATE-THE SOCIAL CLASSES OF FRANCE—SEE BELOWGUERILLA WARFARE- MILITARY TECHNIQUE RELYING ON SWIFTRAIDS BY SMALL BANDS OF SOLDIERSRADICALS-PERSON’S WHO WANT BROAD CHANGES MADE IN THEGOVERNMENT AND ARE WILLING TO USE FORCE TO GET THESE CHANGES.LEGITIMACY-PRINCIPLE INVOLVING RESTORING FORMER RULINGFAMILIES TO THEIR THRONES
THE TEN PHASES OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION1. The Old Regime—Rule of the King and Queen2. The Tennis Court Oath3. Storming of the Bastille4. Declarations of the Rights of Man5. Arrest and Death of the King and Queen6. The Committee of Public Safety7. The Reign of Terror8. The Directory9. The Rise of Napoleon10. Napoleon becomes Emperor
Stage 1: The Old Regime French King Louis XVI (16th) came to power in 1774 and was married to Marie Antoinette He faced a great debt from aiding the Americans in the American Revolution The Legislative Branch of France: Estates General— separated into social classes POPULATION MAKE UP OF FRANCE Percent of Percent of Percent of Estate Social Status Population Land Owned Taxes Paid Roman Catholic Less than 10% 2% as a gift Clergy 1% 1st Nobles 2% 20% 0%--sometimes gave a donation 2nd to the government bourgeoisie-lawyers, 98% Most of the land Paid over HALF doctors and merchants. was owned by the their income in 3rd Workers-butchers, weavers bourgeoisie taxes Peasant-80% of population
Stage 2: The Tennis Court Oath What happened when the Events that led to the Oath King said no… Louis XVI tried to tax the nobles but they demanded a meeting of the Estates General to The 3rd Estate rebelled and vote on the issue. changed its name to the Estates General National Assembly and -had not met since 1614 Number of Representatives per Estate drew up a new 1st Estate—150 members Constitution/ 2nd Estate—150 members 3rd Estate—300 members When the King ordered each estate met separately, voted, then them to disband and closed brought back ONE vote per estate—the 1st and 2nd usually voted together—even thought the their meeting site they met 3rd Estate had the most members, they usually at a nearby Tennis Court lost. the Third Estate asked King Louis XVI for and swore to stay until the ALL estates to meet together and get one vote King signed the new per PERSON—the king said NO! Constitution
Stage 3: The Storming of the Bastille The National On July 14,• Louis XVI Assembly 1789 peasants• asked assumed they stormed the• Swiss were coming to French prison, mercenaries to break them up. the come to France to help him Bastille to get weapons to defend themselves. The Revolution starts to turn violent in Paris— spreads throughout France.
France’s 14th of July (like our 4th of July!!) The anniversary of the Storming of the Bastille is France’s Independence day! Despite the fact that the French Revolution begins to move towards a more violent path, Bastille Day is a celebration of freedom and democracy!
Stage 4: The Declaration of the Rights of Man August 8, 1789 After capturing the Bastille, the Great Fear swept the countryside. Peasants joined together, killed nobles and took over their land. Parisian women rioted due to rising bread prices. They marched from Paris to the King and Queen’s palace in Versailles, killed three guards and forced the King and his family to come to Paris. The National Assembly drew up the Declaration based on Enlightenment ideas. The nobles supported it out of fear. The Declaration took land away from the Church and also gave freedom of religion and speech. The King was forced to sign it in October 1789. At this point, the Third Estate had achieved their goals…but the RADICALS were about to take control!!!Update: THE THIRD ESTATE BECAME THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
Stage: 5 Arrest and Death of the King and Queen In September of 1791, the National Assembly stepped down to allow a newly elected group, the Legislative Assembly to rule with the monarchy—the King.Radicals Moderates Conservativeswanted to abolish Wanted to limit Wanted to restore This political splitthe monarchy the monarchy but the monarchy to dominated society still keep it full control. and politics in Western Europeled by the Newly elected At this point the throughout theJacobins, they forced branch became the French Revolution 1800s. Manythe Legislative Legislative was run by the countriesAssembly to step Assembly. bourgeoisie & no struggled withdown and held new, longer needed preserving the oldfixed elections. peasant support. monarch system and push for more democracy.3rd Estate National Assembly Legislative Assembly.
International Concerns: Austria and Prussia joined against France and warned against harming the King and Queen. All five countries who shared the balance of power had monarchies. If democracy won in one country, they were all in danger of losing power. January 21, 1793-the National Convention, who had previously arrested and imprisoned the King and Queen, tried and convicted Louis XVI of treason. He was sent to the guillotine and beheaded. The First Coalition: Britain, Prussia, Portugal, Austria, and Spain moved towards France to stop the Revolution. They were unsuccessful.
Stage 6: Committee of Public Safety led by the Jacobin ruler "Terror is nothing Maximillien other than justice, Robespierre prompt, severe, The committee wanted to inflexible" rid France of the past monarchy and nobility and decided who were enemies of the new republic. Tried people in the morning and executed them in the evening. Beheaded those who were not seen as radical enough. Got rid of the original revolutionaries.
Stage 7: THE REIGN OF TERROR Led by Maximillien Robespierre—he had his closest allies killed to prevent any counter- revolution. Widespread use of the guillotine Killed many of the original revolutionaries that were seen as threat to Jacobin and radical ideals. beheaded about 40,000 100,000s died from disease in overcrowded prisons.
Queen Marie Antoinette is beheadedThe first victim wasMarie Antoinette. Shehad been imprisonedwith her children aftershe was separated fromLouis. First they took herson Louis Charles fromher. He disappearedunder suspiciouscircumstances. Then sheled off a parade ofcitizens to their deaths.The guillotine, the newwas put to work. Publicexecutions wereconsidered educational. It is rumored that Marie Antoinette used theWomen were phrase “Let them eat cake,” when told thatencouraged to sit and peasants were starving due to a breadknit during trials and shortage. Traditionally it used to show thatexecutions. she did not care about the problems of the(http://www.historywiz.com/terr people, however this is not a proven fact, but itor.htm) is still a well known quote.
Stage 8: THE DIRECTORY 1794-members of the National Convention feared for their own lives and turned on Robespierre, beheaded him ending the Reign of Terror created a new constitution which had a legislative branch and a Five member consul as the executive branch—known as The Directory Despite corruption it gave France a period of order. found a new general to lead the French armies: Napoleon Bonaparte.This NOTguy This guy!!
General Napoleon Europe’s Reaction: Monarchies of Europe felt threatened by democratic revolution in France. If France was successful, revolution would spread. Joined together to put down the French Revolution.1796-1797: Napoleon defeated Italy forcing Austria and Prussia to drop out of the First Coalition1799-Britain made Second coalition with Austria and Russia but by 1802 were forced to make peace with Great Britain, Prussia, Russia, Napoleon Austria, and Spain tried to suppress the French Revolution
Stage 9 : Napoleon Rises to Power • The Directory had grown corrupt, people began to question their power 1799 • Napoleon had become famous for his defeat of other European nations.Napoleon’s • took the weakness of the Coup Directory as a chance to seize power and did! The New • Napoleon ruled with 2 consuls but took powers of dictator for “King” himself.
Stage 9 : Napoleon Rises to Power Until 1800 Napoleon had ruled with other consuls but in that same year the people approved another new Constitution which gave Napoleon Sole Power of France. The French Revolution was coming full circle, beginning with a King and ending with a dictator
Stage 10 : Napoleon Rules as Emperor 1800-1815Napoleon Restored OrderEconomically: slowed inflation balanced the budget set up a National BankSocially: Nobles who had fled were allowed to return promoted people based on merit not social class/nobilityLegally: established a new legal system abolished the 3 Estate System granted equal rights in law to all ClassesReligiously brought back the Catholic Church was tolerant of Jews and ProtestantsNegative Actions Napoleon had the power to censor all newspapers took away a woman’s right to own property Restored slavery in the French Caribbean Napoleon was exempt from all laws.
NAPOLEON BUILD AN EMPIRE Third Coalition—Britain, Russia, Austria, Sweden, and Prussia joined against Napoleon. Napoleon defeated Austria, captured Berlin and beat the Russians in Prussia—Czar Alexander I of Russia made a deal with Napoleon to split Poland—Poland disappears from the map until after World War I. Napoleon controlled all of Europe except Britain the Ottoman Empire, Russia and Sweden. Completely ended the existence of the Holy Roman Empire--the German states now became ruled as independent states.
NAPOLEON’S THREE MISTAKES1. The Continental System (Blockade of Britain) Napoleon’s navy blocked Britain from importing and exporting goods the blockade was not tight enoughgoods got through Britain responded with its own Blockade on France hurting France’s economy.2. Underestimating Nationalism Napoleon took over Spain and planned to replace the Spanish leader with his brother. The Spanish people were angered and fought to preserve their culture. Spanish used guerilla tactics and defeated France. Showed Europe France could be defeated and rebellions broke out all over Napoleon’s empire.
NAPOLEON’S THREE MISTAKES3. THE INVASION OF RUSSIA Napoleon supplied his army with as little as possible assuming they would move faster and take needed supplies and food from groups they conquered. Russia knew this strategy and used it against France. When the French army attacked the Russians retreated, burned their crops and killed livestock to starve the French. When Napoleon’s men finally retreated the Russians attacked and easily killed 300,000 of France’s troops.
THE FALL OF NAPOLEON The Fall of Napoleon with Napoleon weak European countries attacked France and defeated Napoleon 1814-Napoleon was exiled to Elba (an island off of Italy) 1815-Napoleon escaped, returned to France & raised an army. the Grand Alliance quickly moved in and defeated Napoleon for the last time at the Battle of Waterloo. He was exiled to St. Helena where he died 6 years later. “Au revoir France. Shouldn’t have went for Russia, sigh.”
THE CONGRESS OF VIENNA 1815 Purpose: Austria, Great Britain, Prussia and Russia wanted to restore the boundaries of Europe after the defeat of NapoleonThe Congress was led by Prince Klemons von Metternich of Austria who dominated the Congress.Metternich’s Three Goals:1. Strengthen the countries around France2. Restore the Balance of Power in Europe3. Legitimacy restore royal rulers of France:
Impact of the French RevolutionConservatives Controlled Europe—Throughout the 1800s—Prussia, Russia, Great Britain, France, and Austria tried to maintain a balance of power with each other preserve their own monarchies.Congress of Vienna restored the monarchies of Western EuropeBritain established a constitutional monarchy but only the wealthy citizens could voteRussia, Prussia and Austria maintained an Absolute monarchy and created the Holy Alliance: promised to help each other if they were threatened by reformersFrance—Louis XVIII shared his power with a legislative branch called the Chamber of Deputies. Despite the restoration of the monarchy, France remained greatly divided between conservatives, liberals and those who wanted liberty, equality, & fraternity
New Political Ideas Spread throughout EuropePhilosophy What they Thoughts on Who Supported Wanted Democracy it?Conservatism restoration of Hated wealthy and the monarchies in democracy leaders at the Europe Congress of Vienna wanted a King supported byLiberalism and an elected Wanted small merchants and Parliament amount of bourgeoisie democracy favored radical Pushed forRadicalism change and apt complete supported by to use violence democracy the working class