French revolution

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This presentation is about the French revolution which took place in the recent past and had been successful in shaping the country through such grave conditions.

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French revolution

  1. 1. Aditya Anand IX-C MOUNT ST. MARY’S SCHOOL
  2. 2. © Student Handouts, Inc. www.studenthandouts.com
  3. 3. <ul><li>The Marquis de Lafayette, commander of the new National Guard, combined  the colors of the King (white) and the colors of Paris (blue and red) for his guardsmen's uniforms and from this came the Tricolor, the new French flag. </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Began as a revolt of the aristocracy. </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to capitalize on the financial woes of the monarchy. </li></ul><ul><li>Only solution = tax reform and a direct tax on all property. </li></ul><ul><li>Aristocracy refused and forces the issue. </li></ul>
  5. 6. -Ideological Foundation for Political Liberalism-
  6. 7. <ul><li>The notion of individual human rights. </li></ul><ul><li>A new type of government in which the people are sovereign. </li></ul><ul><li>The importance of a representative assembly. </li></ul><ul><li>The importance of a written constitution. </li></ul><ul><li>The notion of self-determination. </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom to accumulate property. </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Equality of rights and civil liberties. </li></ul><ul><li>Equality before the law. </li></ul><ul><li>No special privileges for the rich. </li></ul><ul><li>Equality of opportunity. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Careers Open to Talent”. </li></ul><ul><li>Inherent tension between liberty and equality. </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Judeo-Christian and Greek roots. </li></ul><ul><li>Enlightenment Foundation. </li></ul><ul><li>Locke’s Notion of the Rights of Englishmen. </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>More fundamental and profound consequences than the American Revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>France = most powerful and populous state in Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Massive social revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>Worldwide impact. </li></ul><ul><li>Becomes model for future revolutions. </li></ul>
  10. 11. “ Series of revolutions which became more radical as leadership cascaded down through French society.”
  11. 12. Watch for the different revolutions within the Revolution!
  12. 13. <ul><li>An old feudal assembly that had not met since 1614. </li></ul><ul><li>Three Estates: Clergy, Nobility, All Others. </li></ul><ul><li>The significance of the voting procedure. </li></ul><ul><li>The miscalculation and lack of social awareness of the aristocracy. </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Before the revolution the French people were divided into three groups: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first estate: the clergy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The second estate: the nobility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The third estate: the common people (bourgeoisie, urban workers, and peasants). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Legally the first two estates enjoyed many privileges, particularly exemption from most taxation. </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>The first estate, the clergy, consisted of rich and poor.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There were very wealthy abbots, members of the aristocracy who lived in luxury off of wealthy church lands. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There were poor parish priests, who lived much like the peasants. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>The second estate, the nobility, inherited their titles and got their wealth from the land. </li></ul><ul><li>Some members of the nobility had little money, but had all the privileges of noble rank. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>However, most enjoyed both privileges and wealth. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>The third estate, the common people, was by far the largest group in France. </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone who was not a member of the first or second estates was a member of the third. It included: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wealthy merchants, whose wealth rivaled that of the nobility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Doctors and lawyers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shopkeepers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The urban poor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The peasants who worked the land. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>The government of France, however, was bankrupt and was facing a serious financial crisis. </li></ul><ul><li>The crisis resulted from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An inefficient and unfair tax structure, which placed the burden of taxation on those least able to pay, the third estate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outdated medieval bureaucratic institutions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A drained treasury which was the result of: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Aiding the Americans during the American Revolution. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long wars with England. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Overspending. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Representative government did not mean democracy or “mob rule”. </li></ul><ul><li>Estates-General became the National Assembly in June of 1789 with the power to frame a constitution </li></ul><ul><li>--Tennis Court Oath. </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Poverty and Hunger. </li></ul><ul><li>Low wages and fear of unemployment. </li></ul><ul><li>Heightened expectations and the exposure to a political perspective </li></ul><ul><li>-- “Cahiers”. </li></ul><ul><li>Strong dislike for and distrust of the wealthy. </li></ul><ul><li>The role of conspiracy. </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Events of the night of July 13, 1789. </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for the attack on the Bastille the next morning. </li></ul><ul><li>The stubbornness of the governor of the fortress. </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrations on the night of July 14 th. </li></ul><ul><li>Sparks tremendous popular revolution all over France. </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Independent revolutionary agitation in the countryside. </li></ul><ul><li>Rumors of Royalist troops becoming wandering vandals. </li></ul><ul><li>Fear breeds fear and peasants start marching. </li></ul><ul><li>Within 3 weeks of July 14, the countryside of France had been completely changed. </li></ul><ul><li>Abolition of the Nobility. </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>&quot;Men are born free and equal in their rights....These rights are liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression. </li></ul><ul><li>The fundamental source of all sovereignty resides in the nation. </li></ul><ul><li>The law is the expression of the general will. All citizens have the right to take part personally, or through representatives, in the making of the law.&quot; </li></ul>The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen
  23. 24. <ul><li>Mounting unemployment and hunger in Paris in the fall of 1789. </li></ul><ul><li>“ October Days”. </li></ul><ul><li>-- “The point is that we want bread!”. </li></ul><ul><li>Women nearly killed the Queen. </li></ul><ul><li>The Royal Family returns to Paris on October 6, 1789. </li></ul>
  24. 25. <ul><li>Ruler of France from 1799 until 1815 </li></ul><ul><li>Gained power with military success </li></ul><ul><li>1799 took part in coup d’etat (sudden overthrowing of the government) </li></ul><ul><li>Although the new government was a republic Napoleon, the new consulate, had absolute power </li></ul><ul><li>1802 made consul for life </li></ul>
  25. 26. Brief Summary

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