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French Revolution: Part 1-Powerpoint


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French Revolution: Part 1-Powerpoint

  1. 1. European History: Part 1 of The French Revolution1789-1791<br />William A. Hansen<br />EDU 290: Central Michigan University<br />
  2. 2. French Government: Pre-Revolution<br />Hierarchical society:<br />Clergy: The Catholic Church was the highest in society<br />Nobility- Included former solders and wealthy land owners<br />Third Estate- Included 97% of the total population of France and was made up of doctors, lawyers, peasants, etc.<br />Clergy<br />Nobility<br />Third <br />Estate<br />
  3. 3. Pre-Revolution Continued..<br />The top two estates (Clergy and Nobility) did not have to pay taxes<br />The government was made up of two branches, but the representatives were all from the top two estates<br />The top two estates held over half the land in France<br />The third estate was forced to pay the Nobility “dues”<br />
  4. 4. Overview of The French Revolution<br />Began in 1789<br />The people of France wanted King Louis XVI removed from power<br />There is time of peace and happiness in 1791 (end of Part 1)<br />More extreme uprisings occur <br />Napoleon takes over in 1799, ending the Revolution<br />
  5. 5. Leading up to the Revolution<br /> What factors could have had influence on the people of France to begin a revolution?<br />The Scientific Revolution<br />The Enlightenment<br />
  6. 6. The Scientific Revolutions Influence on The French Revolution<br />Researchers began to question things that were stated in the bible because they did not have any proof that these stories were true<br />Some of the advancements in science during the Scientific Revolution are:<br />Proving that the earth was not the center of the universe<br />Proving there is more in the sky than we can see with the naked eye<br />Creating a scientific method where scientists started with a small part of an idea and worked up until they found a conclusion (inductive reasoning)<br />
  7. 7. The Enlightenments Influence on the French Revolution<br />The Enlightenment was a time when philosophers stressed equality before the law (all aspects of life)<br />Led by Voltaire, philosophers uncovered new ways of thinking. These ways included:<br />“…we must consider what state all men are naturally in, and that is, a state of perfect freedom…”- John Locke<br />“Everything in this world can be made good if we diminish its faults…”- Joseph II<br />“When the legislative and executive powers are united in the same person, or in the same body of magistrates, there can be no liberty”- Baron de Montequieu<br />
  8. 8. Long Term Reasons For The French Revolution<br />Scientific Revolution<br />Enlightenment language<br />Complaints about noble privileges, guild monopolies, and corrupt royal officials<br />The third estate not having any say in the government, resulting in an addition of another branch of government that was made up of peoples of the third estate (Estates General)<br />The third estate wants the Clergy and Nobility to have to pay the same dues and taxes as they do<br />
  9. 9. Short Term Reasons For Revolution<br />France’s financial crisis- was an accumulation of debt, mainly from past wars including the Seven Years’ War, the War of the Austrian Succession, and the financial backing of America during the American War of Independence.<br />Unfair politics between the three branches:<br /> - All branch’s get 1/3 vote<br /> - Nobility and Clergy always sided together<br /> - King over-rides motions to count votes by head (with all the Estates General’s votes and some of the lower nobility votes, the Estates General would be able to get what they wanted once and a while) <br />King stops Estates General from meeting<br />
  10. 10. Beginning of The Revolution<br />The financial crisis led to the Estates General battling against the top two estates<br />In order to suppress the disgruntled third party, King Louis XVI locked them out of their regular meeting place<br />The people that made up the Estates General then went to a nearby tennis court, changing their name to the National Assembly<br />Before they left from that tennis court, the National Assembly created their own constitution<br />
  11. 11. Requests of The National Assembly<br /> Major aspects of the National Assemblies Constitution included: <br /><ul><li>The third estate no longer would owe Nobility dues
  12. 12. All people would be treated equally under the law
  13. 13. Cut the Clergy and King’s power
  14. 14. Confiscate the land given to the church and sell it to pay off the debt</li></ul>The members of the National Assembly also took an oath “not to separate, and to reassemble wherever circumstances require, until the constitution of the kingdom is established and consolidated upon solid foundations.” (Merriman pg. 444)<br />
  15. 15. Louis XVI’s Compromises<br /> With all the uprising from the “commoners,” King Louis was now willing to compromise with the National Assembly. Some of the things he was willing to do for them were:<br />1. He agreed to abolish the “taille” (tax on land)<br /> 2. Agreed to get rid of “corvee” (labor tax)<br /> 3. Eliminate international tariffs and other taxes that interfered with trade<br /> 4. And agreed to get rid of the “lettres de cachet” (kings right to imprison people, often without trial)<br /> 5. The last thing that the king would bend on is that he would allow the three branches of the government vote by head, but only on matters that did not effect the “ancient and constitutional right of the three orders.” (Merriman 444)<br />*The people of the movement did not accept the kings compromises<br />
  16. 16. Uprising<br />Urban Uprising<br />Rural Uprising<br />Invalides- People that belonged to the third estate raided the Invalides (a veterans hospital), to take weapons that were stored in the building<br />Bastille- With the weapons, the people stormed the Bastille (a small prison that the king for his lettres de cachet), and freed the enemies of the state<br /><ul><li>The Great Fear- Peasants attacked chateaux(castles or large country estates)
  17. 17. Night of August 4- people that lived in the rural parts of France thought the government was going to send members of the military to destroy crops, so townspeople and peasants gathered around France to defend themselves and the harvest</li></li></ul><li>A Temporary End to The French Revolution<br />What the third estate gained:<br />The king would not be able to rule by divine right<br />A constitution would set a type of checks and balances on the three branches of government<br />Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen- a document that proposed universal principles of humanity. Article 1 states, “Men are born and remain free and equal in rights.” (Merriman 448)<br />The Catholic Church became the National Church, making the church lands national. This led to the selling of the national lands in order to pay off debts<br />Protestants and Jews were granted citizenship and civil rights<br />
  18. 18. A Temporary End to The French Revolution<br />What the Clergy and Nobile estates kept:<br />The Nobile class owned most of the land in France<br />The Catholic Church still had a large amount of power<br />King Louis XVI still had an enormous amount of power (he could veto any legislation, so the checks and balances did not apply to him)<br />As a part of the agreement that the Nobile class would not receive any dues from the third estate, the Nobile class still retained most of their rights (ie. Still did not have to pay taxes)<br />
  19. 19. Part 1 of The French Revolution: Timeline<br />November 2, 1789<br />Church properties become national properties<br />July 14, 1789<br />Invasion of the Invalides and Bastille<br />1790<br />Protestants and Jews get rights<br />August 4, 1789<br />The Night of August 4<br />June 20, 1789<br />Tennis Court Oath<br />August 26, 1789<br />Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen<br />June 23, 1789<br />King Louis XVI<br />Compromise attempt<br />Summer of 1791<br />June 1790<br />Abolishment of born Nobility<br />July 19-August 3, 1789<br />The Great Fear<br />The time between “ “ and “ “ was relatively peaceful. Then during the summer of 1791, the French Revolution started back up.<br />
  20. 20. Sources<br />Merriman, John. A History of Modern Europe: From the French Revolution to the Present. London: W. W. Norton & Company, 2009. Print.<br />Background Pictures:<br />-Unknown. Slides 2, 12. URL: serment de La Fayette a la fete de la Federation 14 July 1790 French School 18th century.jpg<br />-Rousseau, Henri. Slides 14-15. URL:<br />-Demachy, Pierre-Antoine. Slides 1, 6-9, 11, 13 16. URL:<br />-Vernet, Horace. Slides 3-5. URL:<br />-Thévenin, Charles. Slide 10. URL:<br />