2.1 social structure in the old regime


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2.1 social structure in the old regime

  1. 1. Social Structure In FranceSocial Structure In France Before the Revolution:Before the Revolution: The Ancien RegimeThe Ancien Regime (The Old Regime)
  2. 2. Three Pillars of the Old Regime Absolute MonarchyAbsolute Monarchy MercantilismMercantilism (economic system)(economic system) Rigid SocialRigid Social HierarchyHierarchy
  3. 3. First Estate: The ClergyFirst Estate: The Clergy 100 000 people (0.5% of the100 000 people (0.5% of the population)population) o The church was extremely wealthy and owned a huge amounts of land all over France (10%) o Collected 10% of peoples income as tithe o Did not have to fight in the army or participate in mandatory construction work o Local clergy sympathized with the needs of the Third Estate
  4. 4. The Second Estate: The NobilityThe Second Estate: The Nobility 390 000 people (1.5% of the390 000 people (1.5% of the population)population) o Nobles could hunt anywhere o Did not have to pay all taxes but one type o Did not have to fight in the army o Did not have to participate in mandatory construction work o The king would often create jobs for them o The highest ranking nobles could live in Versailles
  5. 5. The Third Estate: Everyone elseThe Third Estate: Everyone else 27 000 000 people (over 98% of27 000 000 people (over 98% of the population)the population) o During feudalism almost all of the Third Estate were peasant farmers called serfs o During absolutism the Third Estate split into three groups o The Bourgeoisie o Urban workers o Peasants
  6. 6. The BourgeoisieThe Bourgeoisie o Bourg = City or Town (City Dwellers) o Bankers, shop owners, lawyers, artists, tax collectors o Often bought noble status
  7. 7. Urban Workers o Brick layers, wood workers, stone masons, black smiths, and all types of construction o Often unemployed during times of economic depression o Caused riots during times of famine
  8. 8. Peasants o Most of the Third Estate were peasants o Lived on farms outside of cities and towns o They were not involved in riots or the revolution for the most part o A small few were able to purchase land and earn money
  9. 9. France Before the RevolutionFrance Before the Revolution Modern CanadaModern Canada ••DemocracyDemocracy ••Elected by parliamentElected by parliament ••Able to pass laws byAble to pass laws by majority votemajority vote ••Has consent of theHas consent of the people throughpeople through electionselections ••Elected prime ministerElected prime minister ••Voted by parliamentVoted by parliament BASIC THEORYBASIC THEORY OFOF GOVERNMENTGOVERNMENT POWER OFPOWER OF GOVERNMENTGOVERNMENT LEADERLEADER Pre-Rev FrancePre-Rev France ••Absolute rulerAbsolute ruler ••No elected officialsNo elected officials ••King has absolute powerKing has absolute power to make most lawsto make most laws ••People not consultedPeople not consulted ••King’s power due toKing’s power due to “Divine right”“Divine right”
  10. 10. France Before the RevolutionFrance Before the Revolution Modern CanadaModern Canada ••Tax money spent onlyTax money spent only by elected officialsby elected officials ••Full freedoms andFull freedoms and liberties guaranteedliberties guaranteed ••Collected from allCollected from all people in a fair,people in a fair, efficient mannerefficient manner ••Lower tax rate forLower tax rate for those who have thethose who have the least moneyleast money GOVERNMENTGOVERNMENT SPENDINGSPENDING LEGAL RIGHTSLEGAL RIGHTS TAX SYSTEMTAX SYSTEM Pre-Rev FrancePre-Rev France ••King spent money as heKing spent money as he pleased (Except forpleased (Except for Parlements)Parlements) ••No guarantee for ThirdNo guarantee for Third Estate – vast majority ofEstate – vast majority of the peoplethe people ••Corrupt system of taxCorrupt system of tax collectioncollection ••Poor have heaviestPoor have heaviest burdenburden