Individual behavior Human behavior, which is; considered a complex phenomenon, is very difficult to define in absolute terms. It is primarily a combination of responses to external and internal stimuli. These responses would reflect psychological structure of the person and may be results of the combination of biological and psychological processes, which interpret them, respond to them in an appropriate manner and learn from the result of these responses. Psychologist Kurt Levin has conducted; considerable research into the human behavior and its causes. He believes that people are influenced by a number of diversified factors, which can be both genetic and environmental. The influence of these factors determines the pattern of human behavior.
Foundations ofIndividual Behavior
MARS Model of IndividualBehavior Role Perceptions Values Personality Motivation Individual Perceptions Behavior and Emotions Results Ability Attitudes Stress Situational Factors
Employee MotivationInternalforces that affect a person’s voluntarychoice of behavior direction intensity persistence R M BAR A S
Ability, Intellect, andIntelligence Ability An individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job. Intellectual Ability The capacity to do mental activities. Multiple Intelligences Intelligence contains four subparts: cognitive, social, emotional, and cultural.
Employee Ability Natural aptitudes and learned capabilitiesrequired to successfully complete a task An individual’s capacity to perform a task competencies personal characteristics that lead to superior performance person job matching select qualified people R develop employee M abilities through training BAR redesign job to fit A S persons existing abilities
Employee Ability Ability varies across individuals Three types of ability Physical (strength) Emotional (EI) Intellectual (IQ)
Physical Abilities Physical Abilities The capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity, strength, an d similar characteristics.
Types of Ability Emotional Intelligence Non-cognitive skills in coping with interpersonal demands and pressures Five dimensions Self-awareness: ability to recognize what you’re feeling Self-management: ability to manage own emotions and impulses Self-motivation: ability to persist in face of failure Empathy: ability to sense how others are feeling Social skills: ability to handle the emotions of others
Employee Role PerceptionsBeliefs about what behavior is required toachieve the desired results: understanding what tasks to perform understanding relative importance of tasks understanding preferred behaviors to accomplish tasks R M BAR A S
Situational Factors Environmental conditions beyond theindividual’s short-term control that constrain orfacilitate behavior time people budget R work facilities M BAR A S
Biographical CharacteristicsBiographical CharacteristicsPersonal characteristics—such asage, gender, and marital status—that areobjective and easily obtained from personnelrecords.
The Ability-Job Fit Ability-Job Employee’s Fit Job’s Ability Abilities Requirements