Individual behavior
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  • 1. Module-7Individual behaviour
  • 2. Individual behavior Human behavior, which is; considered a complex phenomenon, is very difficult to define in absolute terms. It is primarily a combination of responses to external and internal stimuli. These responses would reflect psychological structure of the person and may be results of the combination of biological and psychological processes, which interpret them, respond to them in an appropriate manner and learn from the result of these responses. Psychologist Kurt Levin has conducted; considerable research into the human behavior and its causes. He believes that people are influenced by a number of diversified factors, which can be both genetic and environmental. The influence of these factors determines the pattern of human behavior.
  • 3. Foundations ofIndividual Behavior
  • 4. MARS Model of IndividualBehavior Role Perceptions Values Personality Motivation Individual Perceptions Behavior and Emotions Results Ability Attitudes Stress Situational Factors
  • 5. Employee MotivationInternalforces that affect a person’s voluntarychoice of behavior  direction  intensity  persistence R M BAR A S
  • 6. Ability, Intellect, andIntelligence Ability An individual’s capacity to perform the various tasks in a job. Intellectual Ability The capacity to do mental activities. Multiple Intelligences Intelligence contains four subparts: cognitive, social, emotional, and cultural.
  • 7. Employee Ability Natural aptitudes and learned capabilitiesrequired to successfully complete a task An individual’s capacity to perform a task  competencies personal characteristics that lead to superior performance  person job matching  select qualified people R  develop employee M abilities through training BAR  redesign job to fit A S persons existing abilities
  • 8. Employee Ability Ability varies across individuals Three types of ability  Physical (strength)  Emotional (EI)  Intellectual (IQ)
  • 9. Physical Abilities Physical Abilities The capacity to do tasks demanding stamina, dexterity, strength, an d similar characteristics.
  • 10. Nine Physical Abilities Strength Factors 1. Dynamic strength 2. Trunk strength 3. Static strength 4. Explosive strength Flexibility Factors 5. Extent flexibility 6. Dynamic flexibility Other Factors 7. Body coordination 8. Balance 9. Stamina
  • 11. Types of Ability Emotional Intelligence  Non-cognitive skills in coping with interpersonal demands and pressures  Five dimensions  Self-awareness: ability to recognize what you’re feeling  Self-management: ability to manage own emotions and impulses  Self-motivation: ability to persist in face of failure  Empathy: ability to sense how others are feeling  Social skills: ability to handle the emotions of others
  • 12. Dimensions ofIntellectual Ability• Number aptitude• Verbal comprehension• Perceptual speed• Inductive reasoning• Deductive reasoning• Spatial visualization• Memory
  • 13. Employee Role PerceptionsBeliefs about what behavior is required toachieve the desired results:  understanding what tasks to perform  understanding relative importance of tasks  understanding preferred behaviors to accomplish tasks R M BAR A S
  • 14. Situational Factors Environmental conditions beyond theindividual’s short-term control that constrain orfacilitate behavior  time  people  budget R  work facilities M BAR A S
  • 15. Biographical CharacteristicsBiographical CharacteristicsPersonal characteristics—such asage, gender, and marital status—that areobjective and easily obtained from personnelrecords.
  • 16. The Ability-Job Fit Ability-Job Employee’s Fit Job’s Ability Abilities Requirements
  • 17. Thank you