what is perception?A process bywhich individualorganise andinterpret theirsensoryimpressions inorder to givemeaning to theenvironment.
perception is an important factor in human behaviour• Perceptions vary from person to person.• Different people perceive different things about the same situation.• But more than that, we assign different meanings to what we perceive. And the meanings might change for a certain person.•• One might change ones perspective or simply make things mean something else.
perception process• selection of stimuli• organisation of stimuli• interpretation of stimuli
selection of stimuli• selection is the first process in perception• the process of filtering information received by our sense is called selecting stimuli.• we are selecting the stimuli through our senses, like...
several factors are there which influenceselective attention• External • Internal• Nature• Location • Learning• Color • Inner needs• Size • Age difference• Contrast • Interest• Movement • Ambivalance• Repetition
ORGANISING• organisation is the second stage in the perception process.• which helps gain the perceiver’s attention.• The stimuli received must be organized so as to assign some meaning to them.• This aspect of forming bits of information into meaningful wholes is called the perpetual organization.• there are three dimentions to the perceptual organisation
Field-ground differentiationThe tendency to distinguishand focus on a stimulus thatis classified as figure asopposed to background.
• Perceptual constancy•• Perceptual constancy is one of the advanced forms of perceptual organization.• According to this principle, individuals’ perception of certain elements in objects like size, shape, color, brightness, and location is constant and does not change from person to person.• For instance, even though the picture of an apple is printed in black and white, we still perceive the color of the fruit as red.• Perceptual constancy is enhanced by learning. Learning helps individuals perceive certain patterns of cues in a similar way and this leads to perceptual constancy.
• Perceptual Context• The context of the situation also plays a major role in shaping the perception of individuals.• Different contexts convey different meanings to people.• For example, if a manager pats his twoyear-old son, it is considered a sign of love and affection. However, if he gives an employee a pat on the back, it is considered a sign of appreciation for the work done by the employee.
interpretation• after the selection and organising the stimuli has to interpret them in order to make a sensible meaning.• perceiver cant draw any meaning without interpretation.• it is a subjective and judgemental process.• perceiver uses his assumption of people,things,object, and situation.• he makes attributions,uses his judgemental skills distorts information,adds/delete information brings his own subjective feelings,opinion,and emotions,in interpreting and drawing the measures
• Factors influencing Perception Factors in the perceiver • Attitudes • Motives • Interests • Experience • Expectations Factors in the situation • Time Perception • Work Setting • Social Setting Factors in the Target • Novelty • Motion • Sounds • Size • Background • Proximity • Similarity
Attribution TheoryWhen individuals observe behavior, they attempt todetermine whether it is internally or externally caused.There are 2 types of attributions that people make:Dispositional attributions, which describe apersons behavior to internal factor such as personalitytraits, motivation, or ability.Situation attributions, which attribute a personsbehavior to external factors such as equipment orsocial influence from others.
stereo typing• Stereotyping refers to the generalization of the characteristics of all members belonging to a certain group.• People judge others based on the perception they have about the group to which these individuals belong and do not consider the unique characteristics of the person in question.• For instance, politicians are considered to be manipulative and corrupt.• In the organizational context, stereotyping often takes place based upon gender, race, ethnicity, etc.
The Halo Effect• In the halo effect, the perceiver tends to judge a person depending upon a dominant trait which can be either positive or negative.• The various traits could be intelligence, sociability,aggressiveness, etc.• The halo effect is generally found in performance appraisal.• Often appraisers rate the performance of employees based on one particular trait rather than by taking all aspects into consideration.