Attitudes, and Job Satisfaction

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Contrast the three components of an attitude.
Summarize the relationship between attitudes and behavior.
Identify the role consistency plays in attitudes.
State the relationship between job satisfaction and behavior.
Identify four employee responses to dissatisfaction.

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Attitudes, and Job Satisfaction

  1. 1. Chapter 3Attitudes, and JobSatisfaction
  2. 2. 3–2After studying this chapter,you should be able to:1. Contrast the three components of an attitude.2. Summarize the relationship between attitudesand behavior.3. Identify the role consistency plays in attitudes.4. State the relationship between job satisfactionand behavior.5. Identify four employee responses todissatisfaction.LEARNINGOBJECTIVES
  3. 3. 3–3AttitudesAttitudesAttitudesEvaluativestatements orjudgmentsconcerningobjects,people, orevents.Affective ComponentThe emotional or feeling segmentof an attitude.Cognitive componentThe opinion or belief segmentof an attitude.Behavioral ComponentAn intention to behave in a certainway toward someone or something.
  4. 4. 3–4Types of AttitudesTypes of AttitudesJob InvolvementIdentifying with the job, actively participating in it, andconsidering performance important to self-worth.Organizational CommitmentIdentifying with a particular organization and itsgoals, and wishing to maintain membership in theorganization.Job SatisfactionA collection of positive and/or negative feelings that anindividual holds toward his or her job.
  5. 5. 3–5The Theory of Cognitive DissonanceThe Theory of Cognitive DissonanceDesire to reduce dissonance• Importance of elements creating dissonance• Degree of individual influence over elements• Rewards involved in dissonanceDesire to reduce dissonance• Importance of elements creating dissonance• Degree of individual influence over elements• Rewards involved in dissonanceCognitive DissonanceAny incompatibility between two or more attitudesor between behavior and attitudes.
  6. 6. 3–6Measuring the A-B RelationshipMeasuring the A-B Relationship Recent research indicates that attitudes (A)significantly predict behaviors (B) whenmoderating variables are taken into account.Moderating Variables• Importance of the attitude• Specificity of the attitude• Accessibility of the attitude• Social pressures on the individual• Direct experience with the attitudeModerating Variables• Importance of the attitude• Specificity of the attitude• Accessibility of the attitude• Social pressures on the individual• Direct experience with the attitude
  7. 7. 3–7Self-Perception TheorySelf-Perception TheoryAttitudes are used after the fact to make senseout of an action that has already occurred.
  8. 8. 3–8An Application: Attitude SurveysAn Application: Attitude SurveysAttitude SurveysEliciting responses from employees throughquestionnaires about how they feel about their jobs,work groups, supervisors, and the organization.
  9. 9. 3–9Sample Attitude SurveySample Attitude Survey
  10. 10. 3–10Attitudes and Workforce DiversityAttitudes and Workforce Diversity Training activities that can reshape employeeattitudes concerning diversity:– Participating in diversity training that provides for self-evaluation and group discussions.– Volunteer work in community and social serve centerswith individuals of diverse backgrounds.– Exploring print and visual media that recount andportray diversity issues.
  11. 11. 3–11Job SatisfactionJob Satisfaction Measuring Job Satisfaction– Single global rating– Summation score How Satisfied Are People in Their Jobs?– Job satisfaction declined to 50.4% in 2002– Decline attributed to:• Pressures to increase productivity and meet tighterdeadlines• Less control over work
  12. 12. 3–12The Effect of Job Satisfaction on EmployeePerformanceThe Effect of Job Satisfaction on EmployeePerformance Satisfaction and Productivity– Satisfied workers aren’t necessarily more productive.– Worker productivity is higher in organizations withmore satisfied workers. Satisfaction and Absenteeism– Satisfied employees have fewer avoidable absences. Satisfaction and Turnover– Satisfied employees are less likely to quit.– Organizations take actions to retain high performersand to weed out lower performers.
  13. 13. 3–13How Employees Can Express DissatisfactionHow Employees Can Express DissatisfactionExitBehavior directed towardleaving the organization.VoiceActive and constructiveattempts to improveconditions.NeglectAllowing conditions toworsen.LoyaltyPassively waiting forconditions to improve.
  14. 14. 3–14Responses to Job DissatisfactionResponses to Job DissatisfactionE X H I B I T 3–5E X H I B I T 3–5Source: C. Rusbult and D. Lowery, “When Bureaucrats Get the Blues,” Journalof Applied Social Psychology. 15, no. 1, 1985:83. Reprinted with permission.
  15. 15. 3–15Job Satisfaction and OCBJob Satisfaction and OCB Satisfaction and Organizational CitizenshipBehavior (OCB)– Satisfied employees who feel fairly treated by and aretrusting of the organization are more willing to engagein behaviors that go beyond the normal expectations oftheir job.
  16. 16. 3–16Job Satisfaction and Customer SatisfactionJob Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction Satisfied employees increase customersatisfaction because:– They are more friendly, upbeat, and responsive.– They are less likely to turnover which helps build long-term customer relationships.– They are experienced. Dissatisfied customers increase employee jobdissatisfaction.

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