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understanding the formation of group and how they operate in an organization

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  1. 1. NISHA HARIYANI Foundations of Group Behavior & Understanding Work Team
  2. 2. Definition of a Group <ul><li>A collection of individuals, the members accept a common task, become interdependent in their performance, and interact with one another to promote its accomplishment </li></ul><ul><li>Harold H. Kelley </li></ul><ul><li>and J.W. Thibaut </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Nature of groups <ul><li>Three views : </li></ul><ul><li>Normative views describes how a group is to be organized and how its activities are to be carried out. </li></ul><ul><li>Group dynamics consists of a set of techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Regarding internal nature of groups </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Theory of Propinquity - People associate with one another due to geographical proximity. </li></ul><ul><li>Balance Theory - People who have similar attitudes toward certain objects and goals tend to form a group. </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange Theory - The reward-cost outcomes of interactions serve as the basis for group formation </li></ul>Dynamics of Group Formation
  5. 5. Various Types of Groups Formal groups Informal Groups <ul><li>Small groups </li></ul><ul><li>Large groups </li></ul><ul><li>Primary groups </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary groups </li></ul><ul><li>Coalitions </li></ul><ul><li>Membership groups </li></ul><ul><li>Reference groups </li></ul><ul><li>Command groups </li></ul><ul><li>Task groups </li></ul><ul><li>Friendship groups </li></ul><ul><li>Interest groups </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>These groups are formed by the organization to </li></ul><ul><li>carry out specific tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>It includes two types: </li></ul><ul><li>Command group </li></ul><ul><li>Task groups </li></ul>Formal Groups
  7. 7. <ul><li>Command Group: </li></ul><ul><li>Represented in the organization chart. </li></ul><ul><li>Permanent in nature. </li></ul><ul><li>Members report to common supervisors. </li></ul><ul><li>Functional reporting relationship exists. </li></ul><ul><li>Task groups: </li></ul><ul><li>Formed to carry out specific tasks. </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary in nature. </li></ul>Formal Groups contd…
  8. 8. <ul><li>Informal groups are formed by the employees </li></ul><ul><li>themselves. Hence they are not formally </li></ul><ul><li>structured. </li></ul><ul><li>They are of two types: </li></ul><ul><li>Friendship groups </li></ul><ul><li>Interest groups </li></ul>Informal Groups
  9. 9. <ul><li>Small groups: </li></ul><ul><li>Only a few members. </li></ul><ul><li>Face-to-face interaction and better communication is possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Large groups: </li></ul><ul><li>Members is very high. </li></ul><ul><li>Personal interaction is not possible. </li></ul>Other types Include
  10. 10. <ul><li>Primary group: </li></ul><ul><li>It is made up of members who have similar and loyalties and has a feeling of friendship towards each other. </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary groups: </li></ul><ul><li>They share same values and beliefs, but because of the size of the group, they do not interact often with each other </li></ul><ul><li>Coalitions: </li></ul><ul><li>They are created by members for a specific purposed and do not have a formal structure. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Membership groups: </li></ul><ul><li>They are the groups to which individual actually belongs. </li></ul><ul><li>Reference groups: </li></ul><ul><li>It is actually the groups to which an individual would like to belong. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Stages of Group Development
  13. 13. Stages of Group Development The five-Stage Model: Adjourning/Mourning Completion, ending or evolution Performing Achieving the purpose Norming Agreeing purpose and conduct Storming Resolving differences Forming Initial meeting together
  14. 14. Punctuated Equilibrium Model Punctuated-Equilibrium Model Temporary groups go through transitions between inertia and activity. <ul><li>Sequence of actions: </li></ul><ul><li>Setting group direction </li></ul><ul><li>First phase of inertia </li></ul><ul><li>Half-way point transition </li></ul><ul><li>Major changes </li></ul><ul><li>Second phase of inertia </li></ul><ul><li>Accelerated activity </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>It helps shape the behavior of its members, predict the behavior and guide the performance of the group as a whole. </li></ul>Group Structure
  16. 16. <ul><li>Leader’s behavior has a significant impact on the group behavior and performance </li></ul><ul><li>Style of a leader is imitated by the members of the group. </li></ul>Formal leadership
  17. 17. <ul><li>Set of behavior pattern which an individual occupying a certain position in society is expected to display. </li></ul><ul><li>Dimensions of role are: </li></ul><ul><li>Role Identity </li></ul><ul><li>Role perception </li></ul><ul><li>Role Expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Role Conflict </li></ul>Roles
  18. 18. <ul><li>Acceptable standards of behaviour within a group that are shared by the group’s members. </li></ul><ul><li>Norms pertaining to performance related process </li></ul><ul><li>Appearance norms </li></ul><ul><li>Norms pertaining to informal social arrangements </li></ul><ul><li>Norms that regulate the allocation of resources </li></ul>Norms
  19. 19. A socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others. Example : a cabin of one’s own an air conditioner etc Status
  20. 20. <ul><ul><ul><li>Groups of 5-7 members exercise the best </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>elements of both small and large groups. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Loafing - The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually. </li></ul></ul>Size of a Group
  21. 21. <ul><li>Most group activities require a variety of skills and knowledge. Research studies show that heterogeneous groups are likely to perform more effectively. </li></ul>Composition of a Group
  22. 22. <ul><li>The effectiveness of a group is influenced by the complexity and the interdependence of the task to be performed by its members. </li></ul><ul><li>Large groups facilitate pooling of information e.g. addition of a diverse perspective to a problem-solving committee. </li></ul>Group Tasks
  23. 23. <ul><li>The processes that go on within a work group e.g. communication patterns, group decision processes, leader behaviour, power dynamics, conflict interactions etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Synergy. </li></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><li>facilitation effect. </li></ul>Group Processes
  24. 24. <ul><li>Norms and roles in informal groups </li></ul><ul><li>Norms: </li></ul><ul><li>Roles: sharper, plant, monitor evaluator, team worker, implementer, co coordinator, complete fisher, resource investigator, specialist </li></ul>Dynamics of Informal Groups
  25. 25. Significance of Informal Groups: <ul><ul><li>Informal group are quite powerful and influential because the members of the group have a lot in common and depend on each other to carry our organizational activities. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Prevent organizational changes </li></ul><ul><li>Role conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Increased scope for rumor </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure to conform to group norms </li></ul>Difficulties and problems Associated with informal Groups
  27. 27. Dynamics of formal work Groups Although group dynamics is generally associated with informal norms and roles, formally designated work groups also have noticeable dynamics. Example: Committee
  28. 28. Positive Attributes of Committees <ul><li>It facilitates the integration of the ideas and opinions of the members. </li></ul><ul><li>It brings together people with varied experience, knowledge and abilities. </li></ul><ul><li>It helps in the development and growth of human resources </li></ul><ul><li>It helps in the development and growth of human resources </li></ul>
  29. 29. Negative Attributes of Committees <ul><ul><li>very time-consuming and costly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>responsible for a bad decision or mistake </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Understanding Work Teams
  31. 31. Definition of Work Teams <ul><li>A small number of people with complemen-tary skills who are committed to a common purpose, common performance goals, and an approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable”. </li></ul><ul><li>-G. Moorhead and R.W. Griffin </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>Enhanced performance </li></ul><ul><li>Employee benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced costs </li></ul><ul><li>Organizational enhancements </li></ul>Benefits of Work Teams
  33. 33. Team Versus Group: What’s the Difference Work Group A group that interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions to help each group member perform within his or her area of responsibility. Work Team A group whose individual efforts result in a performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs.
  34. 35. Types of Teams Problem-Solving Teams Groups of 5 to 12 employees from the same department who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency, and the work environment. Self-Managed Work Teams Groups of 10 to 15 people who take on the responsibilities of their former supervisors.
  35. 36. Types of Teams (cont’d) <ul><li>Task forces </li></ul><ul><li>Committees </li></ul>Cross-Functional Teams Employees from about the same hierarchical level, but from different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task.
  36. 37. Types of Teams Virtual Teams Teams that use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal.
  37. 38. Team Effectiveness <ul><li>Providing a supportive environment: </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant skills and role clarity: </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on superordiante goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Team rewards: </li></ul>.
  38. 39. Shaping Individuals Into Team Players <ul><li>Selection: </li></ul><ul><li>Good interpersonal skills </li></ul><ul><li>Training: </li></ul><ul><li>Can be trained by specialists </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards: </li></ul><ul><li>Financial or non financial rewards </li></ul>
  39. 40. Applying Group Concepts to Teams: T owards Creating Effective Teams <ul><li>Size of work teams </li></ul><ul><li>Abilities of members </li></ul><ul><li>Allocation of work roles </li></ul><ul><li>Strong commitment to a common purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Specifying clear and realistic performance goals </li></ul>
  40. 41. <ul><li>Good leadership and effective structure </li></ul><ul><li>Preventing social loafing and determining accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Proper evaluation and reward systems </li></ul><ul><li>Generating mutual trust among team members </li></ul>
  41. 42. Teams and Total Quality Management <ul><li>TQM means process improvement and employee involvement is the key to process improvement. </li></ul>
  42. 43. Teams and Workforce Diversity Diversified teams provide unique and innovative solutions, but at the same time, they are cohesive.
  43. 44. Teams and Workforce Diversity <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Greater openness to new ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple interpretations Increased creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Increased problem actions solving skills </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Ambiguity </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity </li></ul><ul><li>Confusion </li></ul><ul><li>interpretations Miscommunication </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in reaching a single agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty in agreeing on specific </li></ul>