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Individual differences and work behaviour


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Slides on how our individual differences affect behaviour at work

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  • with the right mix of individuals the workforce can be creative, innovative and driven'.Analyse the variables that mould an individual's workplace behavior
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Individual differences and work behaviour

  1. 1. Individual differences and work behavior Presented by: Mengot Nkongho Jonathan Acevedo Mohamad Skaf Okoye Chukwudi
  2. 2. Chapter objectives: <ul><li>Identify individual variables that influence work behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how diversity influences the workplace. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain what an attitude is and identify its three components. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the relationship between job satisfaction and performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the major forces influencing personality. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the big five personality dimensions. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss several important personality factors. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Why individual differences are important. <ul><li>Individual differences have a direct effect on behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People who perceive things differently behave differently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People with different attitudes respond differently to directives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People with different personalities interact differently with bosses, coworkers, subordinates, and customers </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Why individual differences are important <ul><li>Individual differences help explain: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why some people embrace change and others are fearful of it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why some employees will be productive only if they are closely supervised, while others will be productive if they are not </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why some workers learn new tasks more effectively than others </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Attraction-Selection-Attrition (ASA) Cycle <ul><li>Different people are attracted to different careers and organizations as a function of their own: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>abilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>personalities </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Attraction-Selection-Attrition (ASA) Cycle <ul><li>Organizations select employees on the basis of the following: </li></ul><ul><li>the organization’s needs (skills and abilities) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>individual attributes such as values and personality </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Attraction-Selection-Attrition (ASA) Cycle <ul><li>Attrition occurs when: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>individuals discover they do not like being part of the organization and elect to resign, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the organization determines an individual is not succeeding and elects to terminate </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Attraction-Selection-Attrition (ASA) Cycle <ul><li>Each phase of the ASA cycle is significantly influenced by the individual differences of each person </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Effective managerial practice requires that individual behavior differences be recognized, and when feasible, taken into consideration while carrying out the job of managing organizational behavior. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The basis for understanding work behavior. <ul><li>To understand individual differences a manager must: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> Observe and recognize the differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Study relationships between variables that influence behavior </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. . Individual Differences Influencing Work Behavior: Ability and Skills Perception Attitudes Hereditary and Diversity Factors Personality
  12. 12. Diversity Factors <ul><li>Primary Dimensions (stable) </li></ul><ul><li>Age </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Physical attributes </li></ul><ul><li>Race </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual / affectional orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary Dimensions (changeable) </li></ul><ul><li>Educational background </li></ul><ul><li>Marital status </li></ul><ul><li>Religious beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><li>Work experience </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Generational diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Disability Diversity </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Generational diversity </li></ul><ul><li>1- Gen Y : 20s and younger </li></ul><ul><li>2- Gen X: 30s to low 40s </li></ul><ul><li>3- baby bommers: mid 40s and older </li></ul><ul><li>Gen X and baby bommers can use Gen Y on virtual team projects </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Disability Diversity: </li></ul><ul><li>A disabled person is someone who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of his major life activities . </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>As managers we may be asked to : </li></ul><ul><li>Make existing facilities accessible </li></ul><ul><li>Restructure jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Modify work schedules </li></ul><ul><li>Reassign employees </li></ul>
  17. 17. Abilities and Skills <ul><li>Ability – a person’s talent to perform a mental or physical task </li></ul><ul><li>Skill – a learned talent that a person has acquired to perform a task </li></ul>Key Abilities Mental Ability Emotional Intelligence Tacit Knowledge
  18. 18. Attitudes <ul><li>Are determinates of behavior because they are linked with perception, personality, feelings, and motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude – a mental state of readiness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>learned and organized through experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>exerting a specific response to people, objects, and situations with which it is related </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Attitudes: Implications for the Manager <ul><li>Attitudes are learned </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes define one’s predispositions toward given aspects of the world </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes provide the emotional basis of one’s interpersonal relations and identification with others </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes are organized and are close to the core of personality </li></ul>
  20. 20. Manager style Technology Noise Peers Reward system Compensation plan Career opportunities Beliefs and values Feelings and emotions Intended behavior Stimuli Work environment factors Cognition Affect Behavior “ My supervisor is unfair.” “ Having a fair supervisor is important to me.” “ I don’t like my supervisor.” “ I’ve submitted a formal request to transfer.” The Three Components of Attitudes: Cognition, Affect, Behavior
  21. 21. Cognition <ul><li>What individuals know about themselves and their environment </li></ul><ul><li>Implies a conscious process of acquiring knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluative beliefs – favorable or unfavorable impressions that a person holds toward an object or person </li></ul>
  22. 22. Affect <ul><li>The emotional component of an attitude </li></ul><ul><li>Often learned from </li></ul><ul><ul><li>parents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>peer group members </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The part of an attitude that is associated with “feeling” a certain way about a person, group, or situation </li></ul>
  23. 23. Cognitive Dissonance <ul><li>A discrepancy between attitudes and behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>A mental state of anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs when there is a conflict among an individual’s various cognitions after a decision has been made </li></ul>
  24. 24. Changing Attitudes The Communicator The Message The Situation
  25. 25. How to Increase Your Effectiveness in Changing Attitudes: (1 of 2) <ul><li>Concentrate on gradually changing the attitude over a period of time </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the beliefs or values that are part of the attitude and provide the attitude holder with information that will alter those beliefs or values </li></ul>
  26. 26. How to Increase Your Effectiveness in Changing Attitudes: (2 of 2) <ul><li>Make the setting (in which the attempted change occurs) as pleasant and enjoyable as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Identify reasons that changing the attitude is to the advantage of the attitude holder </li></ul>
  27. 27. Attitudes and Job Satisfaction <ul><li>Job satisfaction – an attitude people have about their jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Results from people’s perception of their jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Results from the degree of fit between the individual and the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Key factors associated with job satisfaction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotion opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supervision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coworkers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job security </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Satisfaction-Performance Relationships: Three Views 2. Job Performance 1. Job Satisfaction 3. Job Performance Job Satisfaction Job Performance Job Satisfaction Causes Causes “ The satisfied worker is more productive.” “ The more productive worker is satisfied.” Rewards Perceived Equity
  29. 29. Personality <ul><li>A relatively stable set of feelings and behaviors that have been significantly formed by genetic and environmental factors </li></ul><ul><li>The relationship between behavior and personality is one of the most complex matters that managers have to understand </li></ul>
  30. 30. Some Major Forces Influencing Personality Individual Personality Cultural forces Hereditary forces Family relationship forces Social class / group membership forces
  31. 31. Personality and Behavior in Organizations The Big Five Personality Dimensions Locus of Control Self-efficacy Creativity
  32. 32. Conscientiousness Extroversion Emotional Stability Agreeableness Openness to Experience The Big Five Personality Dimensions
  33. 33. Locus of Control <ul><li>Locus of control of individuals – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determines the degree to which they believe their behaviors influence what happens to them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internals – believe they are masters of their own fate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Externals – believe they are helpless pawns of fate, success is due to luck or ease of task </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Self-Efficacy <ul><li>Feelings of self-efficacy have managerial and organizational implications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selection decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal setting and performance </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. How to Develop Employee Creativity <ul><li>Encourage everyone to view old problems from new perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Make certain people know that it is OK to make mistakes </li></ul><ul><li>Provide as many people with as many new work experiences as you can </li></ul><ul><li>Set an example in your own approach to dealing with problems and opportunities </li></ul>