Session Objectives• To understand attitudes, their components and how they affect our behaviours• Compare and contrast the major job attitudes.• Define job satisfaction and show how it can be measured.• Summarize the main causes of job satisfaction.
Attitudes are evaluative statements- eitherfavourable or unfavourable- about objects,people or events.Jungs definition of attitude is a "readiness ofthe psyche to act or react in a certain way"(Jung, Most attitudes are the result of either directexperience or observational learning from theenvironment.
Mainly there are 3 components of Attitudes- The emotional or feeling Cognitive segment of an Affective attitude The opinion or belief segment Behavioral of an attitude An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone Attitude or something
Moderating Variables The most powerful moderators of the attitude-behavior relationship are: Importance of the attitude-reflects fundamental values, self interest or identification with groups or individuals have strong relation with behaviour Correspondence to behavior- closer the attitude and behaviour, stronger the relationship Accessibility- the more we talk, the more we remember and more its effect on behaviour Existence of social pressures- in accord with the attitude facilitates expression and vice versa Personal and direct experience of the attitude.
Leon Festinger (1957) – No, the reverse is sometimes true! Cognitive Dissonance: Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes Individuals seek to reduce this uncomfortable gap, or dissonance, to reach stability and consistency The stronger the dissonance, the greater the urge to reduce it or actively avoid situations and information that create awareness of dissonance existing
Ways to reduce dissonance- Consistency is achieved by changing the attitude causing dissonance modifying or changing the behaviors, or through rationalization
Desire to reduce dissonance depends on: Importance of elements creating dissonance Degree of individual influence over elements Rewards involved in dissonance
Predicting Behavior from Attitudes Closer the match between attitude & behavior, stronger the relationship: Specific attitudes predict specific behavior General attitudes predict general behavior More frequently expressed an attitude, better predictor it is. High social pressures reduce the relationship and may cause dissonance. Attitudes based on personal experience are stronger predictors.
What are the Major Job Attitudes? Job Satisfaction A positive feeling about the job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics Job Involvement Degree of psychological identification with the job where perceived performance is important to self-worth Psychological Empowerment Belief in the degree of influence over the job, competence, job meaningfulness, and autonomy
Another Major Job Attitude Organizational Commitment Identifying with a particular organization and its goals, while wishing to maintain membership in the organization. Three dimensions: Affective – emotional attachment to organization and belief in its values Continuance Commitment – economic value of staying Normative - moral or ethical obligations Has some relation to performance, especially for new employees.
More Major Job Attitudes… Perceived Organizational Support (POS) Degree to which employees believe the organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being. Higher when rewards are fair, employees are involved in decision-making, and supervisors are seen as supportive. High POS is related to higher OCBs and performance. Employee Engagement The degree of involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the job. Engaged employees are passionate about their work and company.
Job Satisfaction a pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one’s job; an affective reaction to one’s job; and an attitude towards one’s job. involves a complex individual summation of a number of discrete job elements. How to measure? Single global rating (one question/one answer) - Best Summation of job facets score (many questions/one average) – standardized scale
Models of Job Satisfaction Affect Theory- Edwin A. Locke’s (1976)- satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. - how much one values a given facet of work (e.g. the degree of autonomy in a position) moderates how satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations are/aren’t met Dispositional Model- Job Satisfaction is a relatively stable disposition of an individual -some individuals are likely to be consistently either dissatisfied or satisfied with their jobs
Causes of Job Satisfaction Pay influences job satisfaction only to a point. After about $40,000 a year (in the U. S.), there is no relationship between amount of pay and job satisfaction. Money may bring happiness, but not necessarily job satisfaction. Personality can influence job satisfaction. Negative people are usually not satisfied with their jobs. Those with positive core self-evaluation are more satisfied with their jobs.
Employee Responses to Dissatisfaction Active Exit Voice • Behavior • Active and directed toward constructive leaving the attempts to organization improve conditions Destructive Constructive Neglect Loyalty • Allowing • Passively conditions to waiting for worsen conditions to improve Passive
Outcomes of Job Satisfaction Job Performance Satisfied workers are more productive AND more productive workers are more satisfied! Organizational Citizenship Behaviors Satisfaction influences OCB through perceptions of fairness. Customer Satisfaction Satisfied frontline employees increase customer satisfaction and loyalty. Absenteeism Satisfied employees are moderately less likely to miss work.
More Outcomes of Job Satisfaction Turnover Satisfied employees are less likely to quit. Many moderating variables in this relationship. Economic environment and tenure Workplace Deviance Dissatisfied workers are more likely to unionize, abuse substances, steal, and withdraw.
Managerial Implications Managers should watch employee attitudes: They give warnings of potential problems They influence behavior Managers should try to increase job satisfaction and generate positive job attitudes Reduces costs by lowering turnover, absenteeism, tardiness, theft, and increasing OCB Focus on the intrinsic parts of the job: make work challenging and interesting Pay is not enough