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Personality, perception and attitudes

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Personality, Perception,
    and Attribution
Variables Influencing
            Individual Behavior
          P
   The Person
• Skills & abilities                     E
                                    The Environment
   • Personality                      • Organization
  • Perceptions                        • Work group
     • Attitudes                           • Job
       •Values                        • Personal life
       • Ethics


                        B
                        Behavior
                       B = f(P,E)
Propositions of
           Interactional Psychology
∗ Behavior—function of a continuous, multi-directional
  interaction between person and situation
∗ Person—active in process
  ∗ Changed by situations
  ∗ Changes situations
∗ People vary in many characteristics
∗ Two situational interpretations
  ∗ The objective situation
  ∗ Person’s subjective view of the situation
Definition of Personality

Personality - A relatively stable set of characteristics that
  influences an individual’s behavior
Personality Theories

Trait Theory - understand individuals by breaking down
  behavior patterns into observable traits
Psychodynamic Theory - emphasizes the unconscious
  determinants of behavior
Humanistic Theory - emphasizes individual growth and
  improvement
Integrative Approach - describes personality as a
  composite of an individual’s psychological processes
Big Five Personality Traits

Extraversion        Gregarious, assertive,
                    sociable
Agreeableness       Cooperative, warm,
                    agreeable
Conscientiousness Hardworking, organized,
                    dependable
Emotional stability Calm, self-confidant, cool
Openness to                                                       Creative, curious,
experience                                                        cultured

 Sources: P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae, The NEO-PI Personality Inventory (Odessa, Fla.: Psychological Assessment Resources, 1992); J. F. Salgado, “The
 Five Factor Model of Personality and Job Performance in the European Community,” Journal of Applied Psychology 82 (1997): 30-43.

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Personality, perception and attitudes

  • 1. Personality, Perception, and Attribution
  • 2. Variables Influencing Individual Behavior P The Person • Skills & abilities E The Environment • Personality • Organization • Perceptions • Work group • Attitudes • Job •Values • Personal life • Ethics B Behavior B = f(P,E)
  • 3. Propositions of Interactional Psychology ∗ Behavior—function of a continuous, multi-directional interaction between person and situation ∗ Person—active in process ∗ Changed by situations ∗ Changes situations ∗ People vary in many characteristics ∗ Two situational interpretations ∗ The objective situation ∗ Person’s subjective view of the situation
  • 4. Definition of Personality Personality - A relatively stable set of characteristics that influences an individual’s behavior
  • 5. Personality Theories Trait Theory - understand individuals by breaking down behavior patterns into observable traits Psychodynamic Theory - emphasizes the unconscious determinants of behavior Humanistic Theory - emphasizes individual growth and improvement Integrative Approach - describes personality as a composite of an individual’s psychological processes
  • 6. Big Five Personality Traits Extraversion Gregarious, assertive, sociable Agreeableness Cooperative, warm, agreeable Conscientiousness Hardworking, organized, dependable Emotional stability Calm, self-confidant, cool Openness to Creative, curious, experience cultured Sources: P. T. Costa and R. R. McCrae, The NEO-PI Personality Inventory (Odessa, Fla.: Psychological Assessment Resources, 1992); J. F. Salgado, “The Five Factor Model of Personality and Job Performance in the European Community,” Journal of Applied Psychology 82 (1997): 30-43.
  • 7. Personality Characteristics in Organizations Locus of Control Internal External I control what People and happens to me! circumstances control my fate!
  • 8. Personality Characteristics in Organizations Self-Efficacy - beliefs and expectations about one’s ability to accomplish a specific task effectively Sources of self-efficacy ∗ Prior experiences and prior success ∗ Behavior models (observing success) ∗ Persuasion ∗ Assessment of current physical & emotional capabilities
  • 9. Personality Characteristics in Organizations Self-Esteem Feelings of Self Worth Success tends self-esteem to increase Failure tends to decrease self-esteem
  • 10. Personality Characteristics in Organizations Self-Monitoring Behavior based on cues from people & situations ∗ High self monitors ∗ Low self monitors ∗ flexible: adjust behavior ∗ act from internal states according to the situation rather than from and the behavior of others situational cues ∗ can appear unpredictable ∗ show consistency & inconsistent ∗ less likely to respond to work group norms or supervisory feedback
  • 11. Who Is Most Likely to . . . Low-self High-self monitors monitors Get promoted Accomplish tasks, meet other’s expectations, seek out central  positions in social networks Change employers  Self-promote Make a job-related geographic move Demonstrate higher levels of managerial  self-awareness; base behavior on other’s cues and the situation
  • 12. Personality Characteristics in Organizations Positive Affect - an individual’s tendency to accentuate the positive aspects of oneself, other people, and the world in general Negative Affect - an individual’s tendency to accentuate the negative aspects of oneself, other people, and the world in general
  • 13. Personality Characteristics in Organizations A strong situation can overwhelm the effects of individual personalities by providing strong cues for appropriate behavior
  • 14. Personality Characteristics in Organizations Strong personalities will dominate in a weak situation
  • 15. How is Personality Measured? Projective Test - elicits an individual’s response to abstract stimuli Behavioral Measures - personality assessments that involve observing an individual’s behavior in a controlled situation Self-Report Questionnaire - assessment involving an individual’s responses to questions Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) - instrument measuring Jung’s theory of individual differences.
  • 16. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator ∗ Based on Carl Jung’s work ∗ People are fundamentally different ∗ People are fundamentally alike ∗ People have preference combinations for extraversion/introversion, perception, judgment ∗ Briggs & Myers developed the MBTI to understand individual differences
  • 17. MBTI Preferences Preferences Represents Extraversion Introversion How one re-energizes Sensing Intuiting How one gathers information Thinking Feeling How one makes decisions Judging Perceiving How one orients to the outer world
  • 18. Social Perception Barriers • Selective perception • Projection • Stereotyping • Self-fulfilling prophecies • First-impression error Social Perception - interpreting information about another person
  • 19. Percei Social Perception Targ ver Ch et Chara • Fam a cteristic iliarity w racteristics • Physic al appea s • Attitu ith targ • Verba rance des/Mo et l commu • Self- od • Nonve nication Conce rbal cue • Cogn pt • Intenti s itive str ons ucture Social Perception - interpreting information about another person Barriers Situational Characteristics • Interaction context • Strength of situational cues
  • 20. Impression Management Impression Management – process by which individuals try to control the impression others have of them ∗ Name dropping ∗ Appearance ∗ Self-description ∗ Flattery ∗ Favors ∗ Agreement with opinion
  • 21. Attribution Theory Attribution theory - explains how individuals pinpoint the causes of their own behavior or that of others Information cues for attribution information gathering ∗ consensus ∗ distinctiveness ∗ consistency
  • 22. Attribution Biases Fundamental Attribution Error - tendency to make attributions to internal causes when focusing on someone else’s behavior Self-serving Bias - tendency to attribute one’s own successes to internal causes and one’s failures to external causes

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