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  1. 1. Police in America Chapter Ten Innovations in Police Strategy McGraw-Hill © 2013 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  2. 2. Impetus for Change in Policing     Local police departments were isolated and alienated from important segments of the community. Research had undermined the assumptions of traditional police management and police reform. Recognition of the fact that the police role is complex. Recognition of the importance of citizens as coproducers of police services 10-2
  3. 3. The Roots of Community Policing: Broken Window Hypothesis  Broken Windows Hypothesis: Developed by James Q. Wilson and George L. Kelling; argues that police should focus their resources on disorder problems that create fear of crime and lead to neighborhood decay. A broken window begins neighborhood decay.  Types of Disorder: 1. Social Disorder (Social Disorganization): A condition said to exist when a group is faced with social change, uneven development of culture, maladaptiveness, disharmony, conflict, and lack of consensus. 2. Physical Disorder: A form of societal neglect resulting from physical decay within a neighborhood; examples include vandalism, dilapidation and abandonment of buildings, and trash buildup. 10-3
  4. 4. Characteristics of Community Policing  Community Policing: A model of policing that stresses a two-way working relationship between the community and the police; the police become more integrated into the local community, and citizens assume an active role in crime control and prevention. 10-4
  5. 5. Community Policing    Community Partnerships  Collaboration between police and community Consultation  Citizens can express problems and needs  Police can educate citizens about crime and disorder in community  Allows citizens to present complaints  Provides forum for police to inform the citizen about successes and failures Mobilization  Neighborhoods  Civil and administrative law  Other municipal agencies 10-5
  6. 6. The Effectiveness of Community Partnernships  Foot Patrol  Increased citizens’ feelings of safety  Positive feelings toward police department  Varied feedback on effectiveness of crime reduction  Neighborhood Watch  Repeatedly found to have little impact on crime  Policing Where “Community” Has Collapsed  More successful among middle-income people, homeowners, and whites than among really poor renters and racial minorities 10-6
  7. 7. Organizational Change  Organizational Structure  Organizational Culture  Management 10-7
  8. 8. Evidence of Organizational Change  Little evidence to support the idea that police organizations are changing their structure as a consequence of community policing  However, increased police visibility as a result of community policing  Incorporation of community policing principles into academy training for officers 10-8
  9. 9. Problem Solving  Last element of community policing  When the police and the community engage in a cooperative effort to solve neighborhood problems  Requires participants to identify the underlying causes of problems rather than respond to the problems themselves  29% of local police agencies encourage officers to engage in problem-solving projects 10-9
  10. 10. Pulling It All Together: Implementing Community Policing at the Departmental Level  Chicago Alternative Policing Strategy (CAPS) Program  The CAPS Plan  Involvement of entire department and entire city  Permanent beat assignment for officers  Commitment to training  Community involvement  Link between policing and delivery of other city services  Emphasis on crime analysis 10-10
  11. 11. (CAPS) Obstacles to Change  Problem of resources  Public opposition to planned closing of precinct station houses  Getting rank-and-file officers committed to CAPS  The 911 system  Traditional system would pull officers away from problem-solving activities 10-11
  12. 12. CAPS in Action  Citizen interaction with police important  Attempted through regular beat meetings where citizens could discuss neighborhood problems • Problems discussed included drug problems, youth problems, loud music, police disregard for citizens  Evaluation of CAPS  Mixed results  High level of awareness of program, but did not increase as time went on  Increased police visibility  More time spent on problem-solving 10-12
  13. 13.  Community Policing: Problems and Prospects A Legitimate Police Role?  A matter of policy choice  A Political Police?  Community policing expands police role and erodes traditional limits  The more they dig into the root of social problems, the more they place limits on individual liberties  Decentralization and Accountability  Decentralization creates a potential loss of control over police behavior  Impact on Poor and Minority Communities  Intrusive on lives of those living in low-income areas, more arrests, fewer men in these communities who can find jobs due to their criminal record  Conflicting Community Interests  Especially financial interests  But Does Community Policing Work?  YES: Study funded by the COPS Office showed that the community policing strategy implemented by the Clinton administration was extremely effective 10-13
  14. 14. The Roots of Problem-Oriented Policing:  Herman Goldstein recognized complexity of the police role  Helped draft the American Bar Association standards that emphasized different responsibilities of police  Goldstein argues we should think of the police as a government agency providing a wide range of miscellaneous services  Also argues that the police are prisoners of their communication system • 911 forces them into a reactive role and makes them think in terms of isolated incidents 10-14
  15. 15. The Problem Solving Process (SARA)  Scanning  Look for and identify possible problems  Analysis  Collect information about the problem and attempt to identify its scope, nature and cause  Response  Analysis information used to develop a strategy to address the problem  Assessment  Evaluation of the effectiveness of the response 10-15
  16. 16. Effectiveness of Problem-Oriented Policing  Problem-Oriented Policing in Newport News  Increased police presence in area reduced reported burglaries by 60 percent  Utilized SARA model  Problem-Oriented Policing in San Diego  70% of officers used some aspect of SARA model  However, most POP projects were not carried out in a traditional “text book” fashion  The Boston Gun Project: Operation Cease Fire    Reduced youth-gang homicides by 70% Residents’ fear of crime reduced by 21% Faith in police increased by 33% 10-16
  17. 17. Characteristics of Zero-Tolerance Policing  Zero-Tolerance Policing  Based on broken windows theory  Calls for the police to primarily focus on disorder, minor crime, and the appearance of crime  Characterized by interventions that aggressively enforce criminal and civil laws  Based on the presumption that communities that need the police the most are also the least likely to have strong community social institutions  Does not attempt to carefully identify problems or thoroughly analyze cause of problems  Focus on place-specific interventions  A back-to-basics strategy 10-17
  18. 18. Effectiveness of Zero-Tolerance Policing  Zero Tolerance Policing in NYC  Giuliani instituted zero-tolerance strategy that focused on enforcement efforts against panhandling, vandalism, public drunkenness, public urination, and prostitution  Result was a drop in serious crime rate, however this also came about as part of a general nation-wide trend in drops in crime rate  Operation Restoration  Chandler, AZ  Restructured police department and gave more responsibility to planning and development dept.  Result was a decrease in public morals crimes like prostitution and disorderly conduct 10-18
  19. 19. Potential Problems with ZeroTolerance Policing  Conflict between police and the public  Encourages officers to be overly aggressive  Increase in no. of citizen complaints  Increase in crime in the long run  An arrest record has a long-term impact on a person’s immediate and future employment  Impact on poor and minority communities  Focus on minor offenses means poorer minority communities will be affected more 10-19