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  2. 2. What is A High Quality Assessment? It provides results that demonstrate and improve targeted
  3. 3. What are the characteristics of a high quality assessment? Clarity of learning targets Appropriateness of assessment methods
  4. 4. Clarity of learning targets Learning targets are the outcomes the teacher wants his or her students to attain or acquire.
  5. 5. Clarity of learning targets The learning targets must be a clear description of what students should know and able to
  6. 6. Stiggins and Conklin (1992) categories of learning targets 1. Knowledge 2. Reasoning 3. Skills 4. Product 5. Affective
  7. 7. 1. KNOWLEDGE LEARNING TARGET The facts and concepts we want students to know Either rote learned or retrieved using reference materials.
  8. 8. COGNITIVE DOMAIN Bloom’s taxonomy
  9. 9. 2. REASONING LEARNING TARGET The ability of the student to use their knowledge to reason and solve problems.
  10. 10. 3. SKILLS LEARNING TARGET The ability of the student to demonstrate achievement-related skills like conducting experiments, playing basketball, and operating computers.
  11. 11. 4. PRODUCTS LEARNING TARGET The ability of the student to create achievement-related products such as written reports, oral presentations, and art products.
  12. 12. 5. AFFECTIVE LEARNING TARGET The attainment of affective traits such as attitudes, values, interest and self- efficacy. Students’ attitudes about school and
  13. 13. What are the characteristics of a high quality assessment? Clarity of learning targets Appropriateness of assessment methods
  14. 14. 5 CATEGORIES OF ASSESSMENT METHODS 1.Written-Response Instruments 2.Product Rating Scales 3.Performance Tests 4.Oral Questioning 5.Observation and Self Reports
  15. 15. 1. WRITTEN RESPONSE INSTRUMENTS Objective tests are appropriate for assessing the various levels of hierarchy of educational objectives.
  16. 16. 1. WRITTEN RESPONSE INSTRUMENTS Multiple choice tests are constructed to test higher order thinking skills.
  17. 17. 1. WRITTEN RESPONSE INSTRUMENTS Essays can test the students grasp of the higher level cognitive skills particularly in the areas of application analysis, synthesis and judgment.
  18. 18. 2. PRODUCT RATING SCALES Products that are frequently rated in education are book reports, maps, charts, diagrams, notebooks, essays and creative endeavors of all sorts.
  19. 19. 2. PRODUCT RATING SCALES To develop a product rating scale for the various products in education, the teacher must possess prototype products over his/her years of experience
  20. 20. 3. PERFORMANCE TESTS It is used to determine whether or not an individual behaves in a certain (usually desired) way when asked to
  21. 21. 3. PERFORMANCE TESTS Checklist is the most frequently used measurement instrument. It consists of a list of behaviors that makes up a certain type of performance.
  22. 22. Performance Checklist in Solving a mathematics problem (example) identifies the given information identifies what is being asked uses variables to replace the unknown formulates the equation performs algebraic operations obtains an answer
  23. 23. 4. ORAL QUESTIONING “The Epitome of a teacher , was said to have handled his classes solely based on questioning and oral instructions”--- Socrates
  24. 24. 4. ORAL QUESTIONING Oral Questioning is an appropriate assessment method when the objectives are: to assess the students’ stock knowledge to determine the students’ ability to
  25. 25. 5. OBSERVATION AND SELF REPORTS A tally sheet is a device often used by teachers to record the frequency of student behaviors, activities or remarks.
  26. 26. 5. OBSERVATION AND SELF REPORTS A self-checklist is a list of several characteristics or activities presented to the subjects of a study, it is often employed by teachers when they want to diagnose or appraise the performance of students from the point of view of
  27. 27. 5. OBSERVATION AND SELF REPORTS Observation and Self Reports are useful supplementary assessment methods when used in conjunction with oral questioning and performance test.
  28. 28. What are the characteristics of a high quality assessment? Clarity of learning targets Appropriateness of assessment methods
  29. 29. PROPERTIES OF ASSESSMENT METHODS Teachers follow a number of procedures in order to ensure that an entire assessment is
  30. 30. PROPERTIES OF ASSESSMENT METHODS 1.Validity 2.Reliability 3.Fairness 4.Practicality and Efficiency 5.Ethics in
  31. 31. 1. VALIDITY the extent to which the test serves its purpose or the efficiency with which it intends to measure.
  32. 32. 1. VALIDITY the appropriateness, correctness, meaningfulness and usefulness of the specific conclusions that a teacher reaches regarding the teaching-learning
  33. 33. 1. VALIDITY How is validity determined? Content validity Face validity Criterion-related validity
  34. 34. CONTENT VALIDITY - Criteria• Did the teachers cover sufficient material for most students to be able to answer the item correctly? • Does the item reflect the degree of emphasis received during instruction? • Do students have adequate experience with the type of
  35. 35. 1. VALIDITY How is validity determined? Content validity Face validity Criterion-related validity
  36. 36. FACE VALIDITY refers to the outward appearance of the test.
  37. 37. CRITERION-RELATED VALIDITY a more important type of validity. The test item is judged against a specific criterion.
  38. 38. CONSTRUCT VALIDITY A “construct” is another term for a factor and we already know that a group of variables that correlate highly with each other form a factor. A technique called factor analysis is required to determine the
  39. 39. **suggestions for enhancing the validity of classroom assessment** 1.Prepare a table of specifications (TOS). 2.Construct appropriate test items. 3.Formulate directions that are brief, clear, and concise. 4.Consider the reading vocabulary of the examinees.
  40. 40. 5.Make the sentence structure of your test items simple. 6.Never have an identifiable pattern of answers. 7. Arrange the test items from easy to difficult. 8. Provide adequate time for student to complete the assessment. 9. Use different methods to assess the same thing.
  41. 41. 2. RELIABILITY The Reliability of an assessment method refers to its consistency. It also a term that is synonymous with dependability or stability.
  42. 42. How is reliability determined? (METHODS IN ESTIMATING THE RELIABILITY OF A GOOD MEASURING INSTRUMENT) Test-Retest Method The same measuring
  43. 43. Split-Half Method The test in this method may only be administered once, but the test items are divided into two halves. The reliability of the test is calculated using the Spearman-Brown Formula and Kuder-Richardson Formula.
  44. 44. **suggestions for enhancing the reliability of classroom assessment** 1.Use a sufficient number of items or tasks. A longer test is more reliable. 2.Use independent raters or observers who can provide similar or top the same performances. 3.Make sure the assessment procedures and scoring are
  45. 45. 5. Eliminate or reduce the influence of extraneous events or factors. 6. Assess the difficulty level of the test. 7. Use shorter assessments more frequently rather than a few long assessments.
  46. 46. 3. FAIRNESS This pertains to the intent that each question should be made as clear as possible to the examinees and the test is absent of any biases. An assessment
  47. 47. 3. FAIRNESS Students need to know exactly what the learning targets are and what method of assessment will be used. Assessment has to be viewed as an opportunity to learn rather than an opportunity to weed out poor
  48. 48. 3. FAIRNESS Fairness also implies freedom from teacher- stereo-typing. Stereotyping means boys are better than girls in mathematics or girls are better than boys in
  49. 49. 4. PRACTICALITY AND EFFICIENCY Assessments need to take into consideration the teacher's familiarity with the method, the time required, the complexity of administration, the ease of scoring and interpretation, and the cost to be able to determine an assessment's
  50. 50. 5. ETHICS IN ASSESSMENT The term "ethics" refers to questions of right and wrong. The teachers need to ask themselves if it is right to assess a specific knowledge or investigate
  51. 51. 5. ETHICS IN ASSESSMENT Here are some situations in which assessment may not be called for: • Requiring students to answer checklist of their sexual fantasies • Asking elementary pupils to answer sensitive questions without consent of their parents • Testing the mental abilities of
  52. 52. 5. ETHICS IN ASSESSMENT ETHICAL ISSUES IN ASSESSMENT • The fundamental responsibility of a teacher. Naturally, no teacher would want this to happen to any of his/her student.
  53. 53. 5. ETHICS IN ASSESSMENT ETHICAL ISSUES IN ASSESSMENT • Test results and assessment results are confidential results. Results should be communicated to the students in a way that other students would not be in
  54. 54. 5. ETHICS IN ASSESSMENT ETHICAL ISSUES IN ASSESSMENT • Deception. There are instances in which it is necessary to conceal the objective of the assessment from the students in order to ensure fair and impartial
  55. 55. 5. ETHICS IN ASSESSMENT ETHICAL ISSUES IN ASSESSMENT • Temptation to assist certain individuals in class during assessment or testing is ever present. It is best if the teacher does not administer the test himself if he believes
  56. 56. SUMMARY: A HIGH QUALITY ASSESSMENT… has clear learning targets is appropriate in method is valid, reliable, fair,
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