Walker, Chapter 9


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  • Walker, Chapter 9

    1. 1. Police in America Chapter Nine The Police and Crime
    2. 2. The Police and Crime <ul><li>Crime Control Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proactive versus Reactive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proactive: Anticrime strategies initiated by the police themselves, not citizens requesting service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reactive: Anticrime strategies used by police when responding to a civilian’s request for service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General versus Specific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Directed at the community at large vs. directed at particular crimes, places, offenders, or victims </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Particular crimes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific places </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific offenders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific victims </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Crime Control Assumptions <ul><li>Citizens are co-producers of police services </li></ul><ul><li>Police and other social institutions are interdependent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communities, families, schools, labor markets, workplaces, other criminal justice programs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Measuring effectiveness requires meaningful definitions and reliable data </li></ul>
    4. 4. Preventing Crime <ul><li>Routine patrol is primary crime prevention activity </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized crime prevention units </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meet with citizens to discuss crime prevention options </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work alongside neighborhood groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educating youth about crime, drugs, and gangs </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Apprehending Criminals <ul><li>Second major crime-fighting responsibility of police officers </li></ul><ul><li>Citizen Reporting of Crime </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizens act as “gatekeepers” of the criminal justice system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patrol officers rarely discover crimes in progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some victims do not report crimes because they do not think the crime is important </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Reporting and Unfounding Crimes <ul><li>“ Unfounding” a Crime: Failure of a police officer to complete an official crime report when a citizen reports a crime. </li></ul><ul><li>Reasons for Unfounding a Crime </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizens do not understand the criminal law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insufficient evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abuse of officer’s discretion </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Criminal Investigation <ul><li>Myths About Detective Work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work is exciting and dangerous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detectives are heroic, courageous and skillful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These myths create unreasonable public expectations about the ability of police to control crime </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Organization of Detective Work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Located in separate unit of department </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Considered a high-status assignment to be a detective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offers great opportunity to control one’s work and exercise initiative </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. The Investigation Process <ul><li>The Preliminary Investigation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Identify and arrest suspects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Provide aid to victims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Secure crime scene and prevent loss of evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Collect relevant physical evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Prepare preliminary report </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Arrest Discretion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on the following factors: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Strength of evidence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Seriousness of crime </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Victim request of arrest </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. Victim and suspect are strangers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5. Suspect is hostile </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Follow-Up Investigations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interview witnesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canvass crime scene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss the case with patrol officers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interview suspects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check records and NCIC files </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reality of Detective Work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not glamorous or exciting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superficial, routine, non-productive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Case Screening </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on seriousness of crime and existence of evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Case solvability factors” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caseload varies: nominal, workable, and actual </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Measuring the Effectiveness of Criminal Investigations <ul><li>The Clearance Rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traditional measure of success in a criminal investigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 21% of all reported Index crimes are cleared Nationally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unreliable since it is based on only reported crimes and data can be manipulated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defining an Arrest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Legally arrested: deprived of rights by legal authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behaviorally arrested: asked by police officer to stop, told they are under arrest, or physically restrained by officer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subjectively arrested: when an individual believes he/she is not free to go </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Officially arrested: when officer makes an official report of arrest </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Success and Failure in Solving Crimes <ul><li>Three main case solvability factors : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Case Structural Factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Related to the crime committed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Organizational Factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of resources does not keep clearance rates low </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Environmental Factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics of the community the police work in </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Officers have no control over these factors </li></ul></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Success and Failure in Solving Crimes Continued <ul><li>Officer Productivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some officers make more arrests than others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality of arrests differs as well: many arrests do not lead to a conviction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Problem of Case Attrition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only ½ of felony arrests result in conviction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detectives and officers typically express little interest in why this happens and how to fix it </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. The Use of Eyewitness Identification, Criminalistics, and DNA in Investigations <ul><li>Eyewitness Identification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically unreliable due to problems with human perception and memory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Criminalistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technical specialists in crime lab analyze evidence, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DNA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All DNA samples forwarded to the FBI and put into the National DNA Indexing System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stores forensic data and convicted offender index data </li></ul></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Improving Criminal Investigations <ul><li>Changes in community policing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structural changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Headquarters changed to beats and precincts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assigning investigators to particular areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedural changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Greater intergovernmental communication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assistance from other criminal justice orgs. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Role and responsibility changes for investigators </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Special Investigative Techniques <ul><li>Undercover Police Work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliberate deception that may promote a habit of lying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Befriending criminals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May erode the standards of policing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less supervision </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Informants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used especially in victimless crimes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Criminals who possess special knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential problems because police must give something in return for access to that information </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Policing Drugs <ul><li>Drug Enforcement Strategies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply reduction strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buy and bust </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Trading up” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Long-term undercover work </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drug crackdown: intensive enforcement effort </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand reduction strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drug education programs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Minorities and the War on Drugs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>African Americans arrested more frequently than whites, although usage is about the same </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Demand Reduction: The D.A.R.E Program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating in 70 percent of all public school systems </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Policing Gangs and Gang-Related Crime <ul><li>Gang Suppression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The police gang unit: specialized unit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has at least one sworn officer whose job it is to engage in gang control effort </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gang Prevention: G.R.E.A.T. Program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gang Resistance Education and Training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operates in all 50 states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Study showed that it was not very effective at preventing students from joining gangs </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Policing Career Criminals <ul><li>Career Criminals: People believed to be committing a high rate of offenses </li></ul><ul><li>Repeat Offender Programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Targeting suspected high-rate offenders for surveillance and arrest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Targeting those with outstanding warrants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Case-enhancement programs to provide information about offendor histories </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Policing Guns and Gun Crimes <ul><li>Victims are most likely to be Black, American Indian and Hispanic </li></ul><ul><li>Men are twice as likely to be victims compared to women </li></ul><ul><li>Gun Suppression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Safe Neighborhood (PSN) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kansas City Gun Experiment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Targeted a high-crime precinct with problem-oriented policing and directed patrol </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As a result, gun crimes fell 49% </li></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Policing Hate Crime <ul><li>Hate Crime – bias motivated crimes </li></ul><ul><li>The Scope and Nature of Hate Crime </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50.8% racial bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>18.4% religious bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>16.6% sexual orientation bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>13.2% ethnic/national origin bias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Five main characteristics of Hate Crimes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Higher level of assaults against persons than crimes generally </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More violent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attacks preceded by series of confrontations that escalate in severity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More likely to be committed be group perpetrators </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Likely to be committed by someone the victim knows </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Police Response to Hate Crime </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation of specialized bias crime units </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Policing Terrorism <ul><li>The Scope and Nature of Terrorism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrorism: “The unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof in furtherance of political or social objectives.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Domestic Terrorism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planned and carried out by Americans on American soil </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Foreign Terrorism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrorist activities coordinated and perpetrated by foreign persons or countries against the U.S. </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Responding to Terrorism <ul><li>In the wake of September 11 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Homeland Security created </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing number of U.S. Coast Guard and Customs Service personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FBI Office of Intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FBI Counterterrorism Watch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local police first to respond in a terrorist event </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But issues between federal law enforcement agencies and local police arise due to refusal to share critical information </li></ul></ul></ul>