Walker, chapter 7


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Walker, chapter 7

  1. 1. Police in America Chapter Seven Patrol: The Backbone of Policing
  2. 2. The Central Role of Patrol <ul><li>Majority of police officers assigned to patrol </li></ul><ul><li>Gatekeepers of the CJ System and therefore most important decision makers </li></ul><ul><li>Experience on patrol formative part of police officer’s career </li></ul><ul><li>Least desirable assignment </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Functions of Patrol <ul><ul><li>To deter crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To enhance feelings of public safety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To make officers available for service </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Organization and Delivery of Patrol <ul><li>Factors affecting the delivery of patrol services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of sworn officers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Police-population ratio </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assignment to Patrol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distribution of Patrol Officers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One versus two officer cars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work styles of officers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Hot Spots” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An area that receives a disproportionate number of calls for police service/ has a high crime rate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of Patrol: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Foot patrol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automobile patrol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- One officer versus two officer cars </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Staffing Patrol Beats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- On any given night, no officer is available for many patrol beats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Police patrol is very expensive </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Styles of Patrol <ul><li>Individual Styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Officer-initiated activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes stopping, questioning, frisking suspicious citizens, stopping vehicles, writing traffic tickets, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amount varies between departments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Supervisor Styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also affect an officer’s level of activity </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Organizational Styles <ul><li>James Q. Wilson identified three distinct organizational styles. </li></ul><ul><li>The watchman style emphasizes peace-keeping without aggressive law enforcement and few controls over rank-and-file officers. </li></ul><ul><li>The legalistic style emphasizes aggressive crime-fighting an attempts to control officer behavior through a rule-bound, “by the book” administrative approach. </li></ul><ul><li>The service style emphasizes responsiveness to community expectations and is generally found in suburban police departments where there is relatively little crime. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Patrol Supervision <ul><li>The Role of Sergeant: Patrol supervision is usually accomplished by the sergeant on duty. </li></ul><ul><li>The principle of span of control holds that a supervisor can effectively manage only a limited number of people. </li></ul><ul><li>The recommended span of control is one sergeant for about every eight officers. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Communications Center <ul><li>The Nerve Center of Policing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>911 Communications center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Citizen-dominated </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reactive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incident-based </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>911 Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Processing Calls for Service </li></ul><ul><li>Operator-Citizen Interactions </li></ul>
  9. 9. 911 Systems <ul><li>Introduced by AT&T Company in 1968 </li></ul><ul><li>911 systems contributed to increase in calls for service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To handle this increase, departments assign priorities to incoming calls based on seriousness of problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Police able to more efficiently manage delayed responses to non-emergency calls </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Processing Calls for Service <ul><li>Communication center operators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obtain information from caller and makes decision about appropriate response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise tremendous discretion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only ½ of all calls to 911 result in a dispatch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operators ask questions of callers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operators assess situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operators decide how many and which officers to dispatch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patrol officers responding to calls experience great uncertainty </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Operator-Citizen Interactions <ul><li>Need to provide officers with as much accurate information as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Interactions lengthy, involving many questions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some questions are a threat to caller’s trustworthiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others are a threat to caller’s personal character/judgment </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The Systematic Study of Police Patrol <ul><li>Patrol is point of most police-citizen interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Studying patrol is difficult and expensive due to decentralized nature of the job </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Studies of police patrol include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>American Bar Foundation Survey (1956-1957) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>President’s Crime Commission (1965-1967) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Police Services Study (1977) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Project on Policing Neighborhoods (1996-1997) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Standards for Systematic Social Observation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed to provide accurate, representative picture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trained observers follow officer everywhere the officer goes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take field notes which officer can then read </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The Call Service Workload <ul><li>The Volume of Calls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depends on the area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minneapolis: 550 per year versus St. Paul: 221 per year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of Calls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Order maintenance calls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service calls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>However, many situations are ambiguous </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Aspects of Patrol Work <ul><li>Response Time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Discovery Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot be controlled by officers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Reporting Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Processing Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Travel Time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reasons why citizens delay calling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Need to verify crime occurred </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Regain composure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Call a friend or family member first </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Decide whether to involve police </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Telephone not immediately available </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Aspects of Patrol Work Continued <ul><li>Officer use of patrol time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project on Policing Neighborhoods (POPN) studies routine police work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Found that regular patrol officers spend only 20 percent of shift interacting with citizens </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rest of time spent on general patrol and traveling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Evading duty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delay in reporting the completion of a call </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High-speed pursuits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A situation where a police officer attempts to stop a vehicle and the suspect knowingly flees at a high rate of speed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Highly dangerous situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision to engage in pursuit based on judgment of officer </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Effectiveness of Patrol <ul><li>Kansas City Preventative Patrol Experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controversial results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenged traditional assumptions about patrol </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Initial Experiments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operation 25 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methodologically flawed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Newark Foot Patrol Experiment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Crime </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Citizen Attitudes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Improving Traditional Patrol <ul><li>Differential Response Calls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Classifying calls according to seriousness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Telephone Reporting Units </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Handle 10-20% of calls on some shifts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>311 Nonemergency Numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Non-English 911 Call Services </li></ul><ul><li>Reverse 911 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows police to call citizens </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computers and Video Cameras in Patrol Cars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase accountability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Police Aides or Cadets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Unsworn officers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Street Skills Training for Patrol Officers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- High-risk, low-frequency events </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Directed Patrol and “Hot Spots” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Look for specific crimes or people, patrol certain areas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Customer Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Beyond Traditional Patrol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Taking more proactive measures </li></ul></ul>