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  1. 1. Police in America Chapter Four Police Organizations McGraw-Hill © 2013 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.
  2. 2. Quasi-Military Style of Police Organizations      Officers wear uniforms Military-style rank designations Hierarchical command structure Authoritarian organizational style Legal authority to use deadly force and carry weapons  Criticisms  Cultivates an “us versus them” attitude  Encourages the idea of a “war on crime”  Authoritarian style contrary to democratic principles and produces low morale  Rigid structure leaves room for job dissatisfaction 4-2
  3. 3. Police Departments as Organizations Dominant style is as a complex bureaucracy  Characterized by           Complex organizations Tasks assigned to “bureaus” Hierarchy and clear division of labor Responsibility for specific tasks delegated to lower-ranking employees Clear chain of command Clear unity of command Written rules and regulations Flow of information according to chain of command Clear career paths 4-3
  4. 4. Pros and Cons of Bureaucracy in Policing  The Problems Rigid, inflexible, and unable to adapt to external changes Communication within the organization often breaks down Tend to be inward looking, self-serving, and isolated from the people they serve Are accused of not using the talents of their employees and even stifling creativity      The Positives  • • • •  Criticisms: Cultivates an “us versus them” attitude Encourages the idea of a “war on crime” Authoritarian style contrary to democratic principles and produces low morale Rigid structure leaves room for job dissatisfaction Informal Aspects  Horizontal and vertical cliques 4-4
  5. 5. Bureaucracy and Police Professionalism  Professionalism challenged by the bureaucratic nature of policing  Professional departments adopted a “by the book” approach to policing  The bureaucracy imposes formal controls over the behavior of police officers 4-5
  6. 6. Changing Police Organizations  Community Policing  Decentralizes decision making (territorial and administrative)  Task Forces  Officers from different ranks based on talents 4-6
  7. 7. Community Policing  Community policing attempts to modify the police organization through debureaucratization.     decentralize deformalize despecialize delayerize 4-7
  8. 8. COMPSTAT: Computer Comparison Statistics       Clarifies the department’s mission, goals, and values Holds managers accountable Organizational power and authority transferred to commanders who are responsible for geographic areas Resources are transferred to commanders. Data used to identify problems and to evaluate success and failure. Middle managers expected to use innovative problemsolving tactics 4-8
  9. 9. Civil Service  Formal and legally binding procedures governing personnel decisions  Nearly universal  Purpose: to ensure personnel make decisions objectively  Reinforces the hierarchy of police depts. Rewards hierarchy Seniority hierarchy  Status hierarchy Rank hierarchy  4-9
  10. 10. Police Unions  Majority of police officers represented by unions  Three major police unions: 1. Fraternal Order of Police 2. International Union of Police Associations 3. Teamsters Law Enforcement League 4-10
  11. 11. Police Unions Continued  Collective Bargaining  “The method of determining conditions of employment through bilateral negotiations”  Grievance Procedures  Provides due process to employees  Unions and Shared Governance  Impasse Settlement and Strikes  Impact of Police Unions  Improvements in salaries and benefits 4-11
  12. 12. Police Organizations and Their Environment  Contingency Theory  Organizations are structured to achieve specific goals (crime control)  Institutional Theory  Organizations operate in relation to their external social and political environment  Resource Dependency Theory  Organizations must obtain resources to survive 4-12