Teaching theories
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Teaching theories Teaching theories Presentation Transcript

  • By JEEN PETER Master of Education (2010 – 2011) School of Education Pondicherry University
    • “ A theory of teaching is a set of interrelated constructs, definitions, propositions which present a systematic view of teaching by specifying relations among variables with the purpose of explaining and predicting ”.
  • Formal Theory of teaching Descriptive theory of teaching Normative theory of teaching
    • Meutic Theory of teaching
    • Communication Theory of teaching
    • Moulding theory of teaching
    • The mutual enquiry theory
    • Theories of instruction
    • Prescriptive theory of teaching
    • Cognitive theory of teaching
    • Theory of teacher behaviour
    • Psychological Theory of teaching
    • General theory of teaching
    View slide
    • The theory which is based upon certain logic, certain metaphysical, epistemological assumptions and propositions is known as formal theory of teaching.
    View slide
    • Meutic Theory of Teaching
    • This theory conceives that teaching process helps to recollect or unfold that knowledge with questioning techniques.
    • The socratic’s method is an essential for this theory.
    • The heredity plays an important role in teaching process.
    • The communication Theory of Teaching
    • This theory of teaching based upon assumptions that the teacher possesses all knowledge and information which student does not possess.
    • the teacher presents, explains, demonstrates and performs in the classroom .
    • The moulding theory of teaching
    • John Dewey is the advocate of this moulding theory of teaching.
    • It has the focus on shape, form and mould of the students behavior.
    • human personality is formed, shaped and moulded by their environment .
    • The mutual inquiry theory
    • This theory assumes that each individual has the capacity to discover new knowledge with mutual inquiry.
    • True knowledge is inquiry.
    • This theory of teaching is clearly applicable to research and art.
    • Descriptive theory of teaching is based upon certain propositions and certain observations .
    • Theories of Instructions
    • Gagne’s hierarchical theory of Instruction.
    • Atkinson’s Decision Theoretic Analysis for optimizing learning.
    • Bruner’s Cognitive Developmental Theory of Instruction.
    • Gagne’s hierarchical theory of Instruction
    • Learning event Corresponding instructional events
    • Reception Gaining attention
    • Expectancy Information learners of the objective
    • Retrieval Stimulation recall or prior learning
    • Selective Perception Presenting the stimulus
    • Semantic encoding Providing learning guidance
    • Responding Eliciting performance
    • Reinforcement Providing feedback
    • Retrieval Assessing performance
    • Generalization Enhancing retention and transfer
    • Atkinson’s Decision-theoretic Analysis for Optimizing Learning .
    • Atkinson Proposed four characteristics
    • Model of the learning process should be involved
    • It should involve specified instructional actions
    • The instructional objectives should be specified in behavioral terms.
    • Each instructional objective can be measured by Burner advocates that a theory of instruction is designing measurement scale or questions.
    • Bruner’s Cognitive Developmental Theory of Instruction .
    • Bruner has specified four features
    • Predisposition to learn - A theory of instruction must be concerned with the experiences and context that will tend to make the child willing and able to learn when he enters the school
    • Structure of knowledge - A theory of instruction should specify the ways in which body of knowledge should be structured so that it can be most readily grasped by the learner.
    • Sequence of instruction – A theory of instruction should specify the most effective sequences to present the material
    • Reinforcement – A theory of instruction should specify the nature and pacing of rewards, moving from extrinsic rewards of intrinsic one.
    • E. Stones and Morries have attempted to explain the nature of teaching with the help of three types of related variables:
    • The first phase includes the teacher in the analysis of the teaching problems and teaching tests before teaching takes place.
    • In the second Phase decision are made about the interrelationship of the variables deemed appropriate to teaching objectives
    • The third phase concerns with evaluating the effectiveness and workability of phase two
    • The cognitive theory of teaching
    • Types of teacher’s activity –Adviser, counselor, motivator, demonstrator, curriculum planner and evaluator.
    • Types of educational objectives –Cognitive, Affective and Psychomotor.
    • Types of learning theories – philosophical theories of learning Psychological theories of learning
    • Types of components of learning - drive, cue, response and reward .
    • D.G. Ryan has tried to explain the concept of teacher-behaviour and formulated a theory of teacher-behaviour.
    • “ Teacher behavior consists of those acts that the teacher performs typically in the classroom in order to induce-learning”.
    • - M. Meux and B.O. Smith
    • It is based upon two postulates.
    • Teacher behaviour is social in nature
    • Teacher behaviour is relative
    • This theory considers teaching a sort contractual relationship between the teacher and the pupils.
    • That relationship consists of certain activities to be performed by the teacher such as : analyzing teaching task, determining learning goals, identifying entering behavior and selecting teaching strate gy
    • S.C.T. Clarke has formulated a general theory of teaching.
    • It assumes that teaching is process which is designed and performed to produce change in behavior of students .
    • Teaching theory is prescriptive.
    • Teachers and pupils are the major variables of teaching theory.
    • It is narrow and specific.
    • It is based upon learning theory, learning conditions and learning components.
    • While learning theory are formulated by conducting experiments on animals teaching theory is developed by dealing with human subjects in normal situations. I
    • It is concerned with effective learning and development of pupils.
    • Sharma. R.K. “ Technological foundation of education ”, Theories of teaching.
    • Mangal. S.K. “ Advanced Educational Psychology ”, Nature and theories of learning. PHI learning Private Limited. Pg.235 – 236 .