This civilization was developing on the island of Crete while Egypt and Mesopotamia were flourishing. Aegean Civilizations Minoan (island of Crete) Mycenaean (mainland Greece)
Minoans Trade with Fertile Crescent and Egypt Olive oil & pottery Love of art and beauty Knossos = capital Flush toilets Bath tubs Indoor plumbing
Mycenaeans Mainland Greece Destroyed Minoans 1400 B.C. Love military War with Troy 10 years Gained entrance through Trojan Horse 1200 B.C. conquered by Dorians from North
Greek Dark Ages New invaders Cultural centers neglected Adopted a more simple life in villages Blended together Minoan and Mycenaean cultures = GREEK CULTURE Iliad & Odyssey Heroic figures Brutal warfare Adventurous exploits
Mythology Played dominant role in Greek life Myths = to explain their beliefs about life, world, god 12 gods/goddesses Zeus = king of Gods Apollo = son Athena = wisdom Many gods had human characteristics (anthropomorphism)
Olympic Games Every 4 years on Mt. Olympia Physical contest to please the gods Goal = to attain physical perfection Rare cooperation between Greek city-states
Rise of City-states Greeks isolated from each other by mountains Shared culture and language Lacked political unity Polis = city-state; basic political unit Source of: Authority Protection livlihood
Sparta vs. Athens Southern Greece Eastern Greece Strict military state Creative and commercial Highest goal = best warrior Highest Goal = individualism for Sparta & preserve culture Government controlled all Early rule by monarch aspects of life Later oligarchy Even women encouraged to be physically fit! Solon created Council of 400 Oligarchy government at its Represented all sections of best! Athens Peloponnesian League to protect against Athens After Solon, tyranny Pericles – rule of people
Persian Wars Persian wanted to invade Greece Greece united against Persians 490 BC - Greeks victory 480 BC- Persia invade again, Battle of Thermopylae Spartans stay and fight till death Battle of Salamis Bay Xerxes destroy Athens Greeks trick and defeat Persian navy Stopped Persian invasion but 200 yrs. still bother Greeks
Periclean Age High patriotism & self confidence Especially in Athens (became leading city-state) Delian League Defensive alliance against outsiders attach Pericles = leader of Athens (460 BC – 429 BC) Advances in Thought Art/Literature/Drama - Every adult male citizen can vote and hold office Science - Government controlled by the Architecture people
Peloponnesian War 431 BC – 404 BC Devastating civil war Sparta vs. Athens Sparta had: Land strength Allied with Persia to win over Athens Athens had: Control over seas Plague killed many Outcome: Oligarchies in power again. Constant uprisings. Disunity
Rise of Macedonia King Phillip unite Macedonia and Greece under rule Tolerance & appreciation for Greek Culture 336 BC- His son, Alexander takes throne (20 yrs old) Taught by Aristotle Also like Greek culture Spread it throughout empire
Bible Prophesy In the Bible, Daniel Chapter 8 makes detailed prophecies about a future Greek leader. Three hundred years later, Alexander the Great would fulfill these prophecies to the letter. Prophecy: A future Greek leader will advance rapidly from the west. And as I was considering, suddenly a male goat [the Greek Empire] came from the west, across the surface of the whole earth, without touching the ground [this indicates fantastic speed]; and the goat had a notable horn between his eyes [Alexander the Great]. — Daniel 8:5 Fulfillment: Alexander the Great advanced so rapidly from the west, that military analysts to this day marvel at the speed and efficiency with which he moved his forces. Later on in Chapter 8, Daniel specifically identifies the goat as Greece– a remarkable prophecy made 300 years before Greece would rise to power. Prophecy: Alexander the Great would attack and destroy the Media-Persian Empire, the dominant empire in the world.] Daniel 8:5-7 Fulfillment: Alexander destroyed the Media-Persian Empire.
Prophecy: He will die when his power is strong…but when he became strong, the large horn was broken… — Daniel8:8 Fulfillment: Alexander died after conquering the known world, at age 33 Prophecy: His empire will be divided into four smaller empires, none of which would be as powerful as Alexander’s empire.…and in place of it four notable ones came up toward the four windsof heaven… — Daniel 8:8…four kingdoms shall arise out of that nation, but not with its power. —Daniel 8:22 Fulfillment: Alexander’s empire was divided among four of his generals: Lysimachus, Cassander, Seleucus, & Ptolemy. None of these empires ever equaled Alexander’s empire in power.
Divisions 323 BC- Alexander dies of fever (age 30ish) Bible prophesy fulfilled Empire divided into 4 parts Generals each took a part Fought with one another