Ancient Egyptian History Class 6 The RomansAdjunct Professor Joe Boisvert Fall 2012 and Spring 2013
The Royal Library of Alexandria• The Ancient Library of Alexandria, in Alexandria, Egypt, was the largest and most significant library of the ancient world.• It flourished under the patronage of the Ptolemaic dynasty and functioned as a major center of scholarship from its construction in the 3rd century BC until the Roman conquest of Egypt in 30 BC.• The library was conceived and opened either during the reign of Ptolemy I Soter (323–283 BC) or during the reign of his son Ptolemy II (283–246 BC).• Plutarch (AD 46–120) wrote that during his visit to Alexandria in 48 BC Julius Caesar accidentally burned the library down when he set fire to his own ships to frustrate Achillas attempt to limit his ability to communicate by sea. After its destruction, scholars used a "daughter library" in a temple known as the Serapeum, located in another part of the city.
The Royal Library• Built in the Royal Quarter next to the Museion (House to the Muses) , the Royal Library comprised a Peripatos walk, gardens, a room for shared dining, a reading room, lecture halls and meeting rooms.• The library had an acquisitions department (perhaps near the harbor), and a cataloguing department.• A hall contained shelves for the collections of papyrus scrolls – legend has it that there was an inscription above the shelves that read: "The place of the cure of the soul." However, the exact layout of the Library is not known.
Caesars Egyptian War In August 48 BCE, Julius Caesar defeated his rival Pompey and the last defenders of the Roman republic in the battle of Pharsalus in Greece. Many died, but Pompey managed to leave the battlefield and tried to obtain asylum in Egypt.• However, the Egyptian authorities decided that it was better not to help Pompey, because they suspected that Caesar would declare war upon them.• Therefore, Pompey was executed when he tried to come ashore. Not much later, Caesar arrived.
Cleopatra VII• Cleopatra VII Philopator (father-loving): queen of the Ptolemaic Empire, ruled from 51 to 30. Relatives:• Father: Ptolemy XII Auletes• Mother: An Egyptian lady from a Memphite priestly family• First husband: Gaius Julius Caesar – Son: Caesarion• Second husband: Marc Antony – Children: the twins Alexander Helius and Cleopatra Selene (married to king Juba II of Mauretania), Ptolemy Philadelphus• Main deeds: Try to Keep Egypt’s Freedom and Independence
Battle for Power• March 44: Julius Caesar is killed; Cleopatra and Ptolemy XIV return to Egypt, where Ptolemy is soon killed and Caesarion recognized as king; first of a series of bad harvests• Summer 43: Cleopatra has achieved control of Cyprus; she supports the faction of Caesar, led by the Second Triumvirate (Marc Antony, Octavian, Lepidus), in its war against the assassins, led by Brutus and Cassius• 42: Battle of Philippi: the triumvirs defeat Brutus and Cassius; Marc Antony will visit the east• 41: Cleopatra meets Marc Antony in Tarsus. The Roman needs the Egyptian queen in his war against the Parthian Empire, and returns the rule of old Ptolemaic territories to her• 39: Birth of the twins Alexander Helius and Cleopatra Selene• 38: Marc Antony gives Chalkis (the Bekaa valley) and parts of Cilicia and Chalkis to Cleopatra; later, she is allowed to govern,
Mark Antony • Marcus Antonius, commonly known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. As a military commander and administrator, he was an important supporter and loyal friend of his mothers cousin Julius Caesar. • Born: January 14, 83 BC, Rome • Died: August 1, 30 BC, Alexandria • Children: Cleopatra Selene, Alexander Helios, Antonia Minor, Ptolemy Philadelphus, Antonia Major, Marcus Antonius Antyllus, Iullus Antonius, Antonia, granddaughter of Gaius Antonius Hybrida
Cleopatra had Children byboth Caesar and Mark Antony "Julius Caesar" Marlon Brando as Mark Antony 1953 MGM/Turner Ent
Last Battle• She played her game very well with Mark Antony and made him follow her plan, he make a new Hellenistic empire with Alexandria as capitol.• When he started giving roman territories to Cleopatra, like parts of Syria and Cyprus the senate decided to relieve him of his duties for Rome.• Octavians had to conquer Egypt. The decisive battle was fought soon, at Action, or in latin Actium.• Its rather remarkable that Marcus Antonius decided to fight at sea, knowing that his legionnaires were far better and also knowing that he could never beat Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Octavians admiral.
Augustus 1st Emperor of the RomanEmpire ( Octavius) Born: September 23, 63 BC, Rome Died: August 19, 14 AD, Nola Spouse: Livia (m. BC 38– AD 14) Children: Julia the Elder, Gaius Caesar, Lucius Caesar, Agrippa Postumus Siblings: Octavia Minor Parents: Julius Caesar, Atia, Gaius Octavius
Augustus• Augustus and his successors continued the tradition of building temples to the local gods on which the rulers and the gods were depicted in the Egyptian manner.• The Romans completed the construction of an architectural jewel, the Temple of Isis on Philae Island , which was begun under the Ptolemys.• A new artistic development during this period was the painting of portraits on wood, an art that originated in the Fayyum region. These portraits were placed on the coffins of mummies.
Beginning of Roman EmpireAugustus was the founder of the RomanEmpire and its first Emperor, ruling from 27BC until his death in 14 AD.Marc Antony and Cleopatra committedSuicide after losing battle to Augustus
The reign of Augustus initiated an era of relative peace known as the Pax Romana (The Roman Peace).The Mediterranean world remained atpeace for more than two centuries.Augustus dramatically enlarged theEmpire, annexing Egypt, Dalmatia,Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia,expanded possessions in Africa,expanded into Germania, and completedthe conquest of Hispania.
Rome Took All From Egypt• The story of Roman Egypt is a sad record of shortsighted exploitation leading to economic and social decline.• Like the Ptolemys, Rome treated Egypt as a mere estate to be exploited for the benefit of the rulers.• But however incompetently some of the later Ptolemys managed their estate, much of the wealth they derived from it remained in the country itself.• Rome, however, was an absentee landlord, and a large part of the grain delivered as rent by the royal tenants or as tax by the landowners as well as the numerous money-taxes were sent to Rome and represented a complete loss to Egypt.
Egypt under Rome and Byzantium, 30 B.C.-A.D. 640• With the establishment of Roman rule by Emperor Augustus in 30 B.C., more than six centuries of Roman and Byzantine control began.• Egypt again became the province of an empire, as it had been under the Persians and briefly under Alexander.• As the principal source of the grain supply for Rome, it came under the direct control of the emperor in his capacity as supreme military chief, and a strong force was garrisoned there.• Gradually, Latin replaced Greek as the language of higher administration. In 212 Rome gave the Egyptians citizenship in the empire.
Roman to Christians to MuslimsRoman rule: 30 BC - AD 395Byzantine: AD 395-640 Ruled fromConstantinople, predominantly Christian.Islamic/Arab Period (Caliphate) Egypt: 640AD onwards. Ruled from Damascus andfrom Baghdad.Ottoman Period: AD 1517-1805. Ruled fromTurkey.
Coptic Egypt: Christianity arrived in EgyptCoptic Egypt: Christianity arrived in Egypt around50AD with St. Mark, and a Christian communitystarted in Alexandria. Eventually there were many(60?) Christian monasteries in Egypt and thereligion was generally widespread. Difficultiescame when the Romans under Diocletian startedto suppress other religions, particularlyChristianity. Much martyrdom for a period ofabout 30 years, 284-313 AD, until the Romansdecided on a policy of tolerance again. Christianitycontinues in parts of Egypt to the present day.