Greek Civilization

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Greek Civilization

  1. 1. Greek Civilization emerged in a rugged remote corner of Southeastern Europe gave rise to a classical civilization Early People of Aegean Crete - cradle of an early civilization that later influenced Greeks Minoan Civilization Minos – a legendary King of Crete Success was based on trade Set up outposts throughout the Aegean world Acquired ideas and technology from Egypt and Mesopotamia
  2. 2. Rulers lived at Knossos Rooms for royal families, religious shrines, banquet halls and working areas for artisans. A Civilization Disappears Volcanic eruption Earthquake followed by tidal waves Invasion of Mycenaeans Mycenaean Indo- Europian people Sea traders Learned may skills including the art of writing Lived in a separate city-states A warrior King built a thick walled fortress
  3. 3. Economic rivalry between Mycenaeans and Troy Troy controlled the passages that connect Meditteranean and Black Seas Greek legend contributes the war to a romantic cause. The Age of Homer Mycenaean civilization crumbled under the attack of sea raiders Dorian invasion from the north People abandoned the cities
  4. 4. 2 Greek Epic Poems Iliad Chief source of information about Trojan Story involves Gods, Goddesses and even a talking horse Story of Achilles, the mightiest warrior Odyssey Struggles of Odysseus
  5. 5. The ancient Greeks absorbed many ideas and beliefs from Mesopotamia and Egypt Developed unique ideas about how best to govern city-states Mountains and Valleys Greece – part of Balkan Peninsula which extends southward into the Eastern Mediterranean sea Mountains divide the peninsula into valleys Hundreds of rocky islands spread toward the horizon Greeks built a small city-states, cut off from one another by land or water Endless rivalry led to frequent wars
  6. 6. Mediterranean and Aegean seas Provided a vital link to the world Coastlines provided safe harbor for ships Greeks become skilled sailors Carried cargoes of olive oil, wine and marble Sailed to Egypt, the Middle East and Asia Minor Returned with grains, metals and ideas Greeks expanded the Phoenician alphabet Greeks alphabet became the basis for all Western alphabets Rapid population growth forced Greeks to leave Wherever they traveled, Greek settlers and traders carried their ideas and culture.
  7. 7. Unique version of city-states Acropolis – high city with great marble temples Flatter ground – marketplace, theater, public buildings and homes Early Governments King – ruler of polis Monarchy – central power Aristocracy - power shifted to a class of noble landowners Oligarchy – power is in the hands of small, powerful elite from business class (merchants, farmers,, artisans)
  8. 8. Increased power of the middle class Iron weapons and tools New method of fighting emerged Phalanx – massive formation of a heavily armed foot soldiers Two most influencial city-states, Sparta and Athens SPARTA: A NATION OF SOLDIERS Spartans were Dorians Spartan Government Two Kings Council of elders Five Ephors
  9. 9. Children were prepared to be part of the military Age 7, boys began training Age 20, man could marry Age 30, after specialized training, took his place in the assembly Sparta and Its Neighbors Spartans isolated themselves They were admired by their military skills Suffered from its rigid ways Warrior class shrank Its power declined
  10. 10. Located in Attica, north of Peloponnesus From monarchy to aristocracy Nobles judged major cases and dominated the assembly Demands for Change Athenian wealth and power grew under aristocracy Merchants and soldiers wanted more rights Farmers demanded change Moves slowly towards democracy
  11. 11. Solon – wise and trusted leader Appointed as archon or chief official Outlawed debt slavery Opened high offices Granted citizenship to foreigners Gave the Athenians more say in important decisions Introduced economic reforms Encouraged export of wine and olive oil Only the wealthy landowners could serve in many positions Rise of tyrants – people who gained power by force Word tyrant has come to mean a vicious and brutal ruler
  12. 12. Athenian tyrant Pisistratus seized power Helped farmers by giving them loans Land taken from nobles New building projects gave jobs to the poor Weakened the aristocracy Cleisthenes – another reformer Broadened the role of the ordinary citizens Set up the council of 500 whose members were chosen by citizens Law making body (legislature) Supervised the day to day work All male citizens over 30 were members of the assembly
  13. 13. Democracy was quite limited Only male citizens could participate Tens of thousands of Athenians were slaves Without political or personal freedom Education for Democracy Girls – received little or no formal education Boys – attended school Studied music and memorized poetry Young men received military training Explore many areas of knowledge
  14. 14. Polytheistic Gods lived in Mount Olympus  Zeus – most powerful Hera – goddess of marriage Poseidon – god of sea Aphrodite – goddess of love Ares – god of war Athena – god of wisdom View of Non – Greeks Barbaroi or barbarian People who did not speak Greek Phoenicians and Egyptians
  15. 15. When the Persians threatened the Greeks, they put aside their differences to defend their freedom The Persian Wars Athens sent ships to help Ionian Greeks in a war against Persian rule. Victory at Marathon Persian crushed the rebel cities Landed to Marathon but overwhelmed by the fury of the Athenians Themistocles urged the Athenians to built a fleet of warships and prepare other defenses
  16. 16. Xerxes (Darius’ son) sent larger force Athens and Sparta joined forces Small Spartan force led by King Leonidas defeated the Persians Persians marched to Athens but were also defeated Unity saved themselves from Persian threat Results Athens emerged as the most powerful city-state Organized Delian League – alliance with other citystates
  17. 17. Golden age for Athens Pericles – statesman Economy thrived Government become more democratic Wise and skillful leadership Political Life All men should take part in the government Salaries for men who held public office Enabled poor men served the government Direct democracy
  18. 18. Pericles hired the best architect Rebuilt acropolis Magnificent temples Creating jobs for the artisans and workers Asphasia – helped Pericles turn the Athens into a cultural center of Greece GREEK AGAINST GREEK Resented Athenian dominations Formed the Peloponnesian League Sparta encouraged oligarchy Warfare broke out between Athens and Sparta on 431 BC.
  19. 19. Spartans allied itself with Persia and captured Athens The Aftermath of War Peloponnesian war ended Athens’ greatness Sparta soon defeated by Thebes, another Greek city-state A new power rose in Macedonia, a kingdom to the north The ruler conquers the quarrelsome city-state
  20. 20. Plato – emphasized the importance of reason Set up an academy Divided the society into 3 classes  Workers – to produce the necessities of life  Soldiers – defend the state  Philosophers – to rule Talented women should be educated and put to use by the state Aristotle Plato’s most famous student Promoted reason as the guiding force for learning Set up a school, the Lyceum He left writings on politics, ethics, logic, biology, literature, physics and many others
  21. 21. Statue of Athena Athletes in motion Carved gods, goddesses, athletes and famous men
  22. 22. Plays to honor Dionysus, god of fertility and wine Actors wore costumes and masks Dramas were based on myths and legends Tragedy Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides were the greatest Athenian playwrights Stories of suffering Comedy Humorous plays Written by Aristophanes ALEAXANDER AND THE HELLENISTIC AGE Phillip II, the ambitious King of Macedonia, was gradually bringing Greece under his control
  23. 23. King Phillip gained alliances with many Greek citystates through threats, bribery and diplomacy He dreamed to conquer the Persian empire He was murdered at his daughter’s wedding feast Phillip’s wife, Olympias, put her son Alexander to the throne The Legacy of Alexander Most lasting achievement was the spread of Greek culture Founded many new cities and named after him Blending of eastern and western cultures occurred Adopted Persian customs including Persian dress After his death Hellenistic civilization emerged
  24. 24. Alexander at 20, was already an experienced soldier Saw himself as 2nd Achilles Earned the title Alexander the Great His punishment was swift and brutal Ordered the city to be burned and inhabitants to be killed or sold into slavery Conquest of Persia Alexander won his first victory at Granicus River Victory through Asia Minor to Palestine and to Egypt and then Babylon
  25. 25. Sudden Death (Dowfall ) Alexander fell victim of a sudden fever and died After years of disorder, three Generals divided up the empire Macedonia and Greece, Egypt and Persia Alexandria Located on the sea lanes between Europe and Asia Built enormous Lighthouse Pharos, among the 7 Wonders of the World Built museums, laboratories, lecture halls, zoo, and library
  26. 26. Learned to read and write Held considerable power In Egypt, Cleopatra came to rule HELLENISTIC CIVILIZATION Employed armies of architects and artists Mathematics and Sciences Pythagorean by Pythagoras The Elements wrote by Euclid, basis for modern geometry Aristarchus, the astronomer who argued that the earth rotated on its axis and orbited around the sun Archimedes, most famous scientist

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