Chapter 13-Exploration & Discovery

489 views

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
489
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
7
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
7
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chapter 13-Exploration & Discovery

  1. 1. Chapter 13- Exploration & Discovery
  2. 2. Why exploration?• New Trade Routes – Wanted to increase profits – Didn’t want to pay the middle man anymore• Gold – Tales of great riches• Adventure – Renaissance  spirit of curiosity & individual achievement
  3. 3. • Religion – Wanted to convert the heathens – Mostly Roman Catholics, spreading their religion, not salvation through Jesus Christ• Competition among European nations – Italy-monopoly on trade – Other nations want to bypass Italy – Kings wanted riches for their own country
  4. 4. Tools for Exploration• Maps – Not very useful in exploring new lands – Every time an explorer returned, he added onto a previously made map
  5. 5. Instruments• Compass –Navigation –Map making –Direction to follow a certain course
  6. 6. Instruments• Astrolabe• Quadrant• Cross staff – All measured angle between horizon and North star – Used to measure latitude – Not accurate on a moving ship
  7. 7. Sea Going Vessels• Arabic sails • Viking Sails – Good on the ocean – Good maneuverability – Only control small boats - Change directions and • Not enough room for men move around things and supplies• Caravel • combination of triangle and rectangular sails • Light and fast • Good for ocean travel
  8. 8. PORTUGAL AND SPAIN
  9. 9. Portugal• Leads in Exploration • Dias – Surrounded by water – Sailed around south tip of – Learned skills from Moors Africa • Navigation • De Gama • Map making skills – Sailed around south tip,• Henry the Navigator reached India – Never sailed • ***Portuguese broke – Loved navigation Muslim monopoly on – Sponsored captains, trade in Indian Ocean*** mapmakers, geographers, etc.
  10. 10. Spain• Christopher Columbus • God planned on the – Italian, sponsored by New World being Spain discovered ONLY after – Wanted to reach Asia by the truth of the Bible is sailing East now becoming more – Ptolemy and Marco Polo well known. – Leaves August • October spots land • San Salvador, Bahamas • Thinks it is Japan
  11. 11. Line of Demarcation
  12. 12. BECAUSE OF THE LINE OF DEMARCATIONTHE SPANISH COULD NOT SAIL AROUNDTHE AFRICAN CONTINENT TO INDIA.THEY HAD TO FIND ANOTHER ROUTE….
  13. 13. Ferdinand Magellan• 1519- Sail East by going West – 200+ men; 5 ships; 3 years – Sail around southern tip of S. America – Named Pacific Ocean (peaceful)• Only 18 men; 1 ship made it back to Spain – Magellan dies in Philippines• 1st time- Circumnavigate world – Found alternate route to East Indies
  14. 14. EUROPE AND THE NEW WORLDAKA THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE
  15. 15. Native Americans• Natives had lived here for thousands of years• Farmers/gatherers, hunters• Worship nature gods• Small tribes rather than large nations
  16. 16. Natives of Central & S. America• More advanced than N. American natives – Large cities – Traded with neighbors – Created art/literature• Maya (300-900 AD)• Aztec (1300s AD)• Incas (1380 – 1570 AD)
  17. 17. Maya • Many city-states • Pyramids • Paved highways • Hieroglyphs • Astronomy • Computed length of year 365 ¼ days • Worshipped false gods • Declined before Spanish arrival
  18. 18. Aztec• After Mayan decline• 1345- founded city of Tenochtitlan – City on lake – Central Mexico – Temple in center, canals through city – Fighters – Conquered over 2 million people – Human sacrifices to their gods
  19. 19. Tenochtitlan
  20. 20. Inca• West coast of S. America (Peru)• Families in tightly knit communities• Mostly farmers• Had an empire – Ruled over conquered people – Well planned cities and road system
  21. 21. • The Incas excelled at terrace farming. Land is very uneven in Peru.• They knew how to use the land they had to successfully grow: corn, potatoes, quinoa…… and cocoa beans for CHOCOLATE 

×