----- Meeting Notes (11/12/12 18:47) -----Called "Middle Ages" because it was between - Roman Empire- RenaissanceWhich were two periods in history with much accomplishments in:-culture-artistic -scientific-political
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Charlemagne was about 60 years oldHad already been in power for over 3 decades
Alexander the Great vs. CharlemagneBoth trained by leading scholars in countryBoth loved learning and promoted it in his empireBoth had good fathers- good rulers military successfulBoth conquered and controlled great amount of land for their timeBoth left their land in sections to their followersAlexander the Great was younger when started learningAlexander the Great – Eastern EmpireCharlemagne- Western Empire
Church had controlled all learning Foreshadows learning will take a secular turn in the renaissance
Papyrus not available anymore because Muslims took over EgyptHides were expensive and hard to get
SIGNIFICANCE = Managed to throw Europe BACK into dark agesIt had a mini renaissance under Charlemagne’s reignTHEY KNEW where to attack = Churches and Cities This is where the plunder was the bestSETTLETRADERAIDTO STOP Vikings they had to built fortifications
Land = wealth and power
What other ceremony does this remind you of?
Notice the lack of ornamentation on wood workDrapes help keep the cold out in winterRoll away bed for whoever had the honor of sleeping with the nobleFurniture came apart for travel purposesChest at bottom of bed for clothing
1/3 of all died before the age of 5
Chapter8 Part 2- Charlemagne & Vikings & Feudalism
Conquests• Frankish empire at its greatest – Most land under 1 ruler since Roman Empire• Laid foundations for modern day Europe• Defeated Saxons
Coronation of Charlemagne• Proclaimed “Roman Emperor” – Wanted to restore the glory of the Roman Empire – Crowned by the pope • Did Charlemagne know or not? • Both benefitted from this coronation – Pope got protection – Charlemagne got title of Holy Roman Emperor
• Charlemagne loved learning and promoted education• Aachen = center of learning with best scholars in Europe – Alcuin- most distinguished scholar • From York, England• * What other ruler was taught by best scholar in the land?
Who had controlled learning before?What Does This Foreshadow?
Learning in the Church• Charlemagne encouraged clergy to study Bible more• Renewed interest in Bible and classical texts• * Preservation of them• Monasteries = print houses, libraries – Study, copy, preserve ancient texts – Carolingian miniscule was developed out of need for smaller more compact print • Shortage of material to write on
4th to 9th century AD Writing8th to 12th century ADCarolingian Miniscule
Scriptorium- aroom devoted to the hand- lettered copying of manuscripts
Breakup of Charlemagne Empire• Trouble within – Charlemagne sons split empire into 3 areas – What countries come from each area?• Charlemagne descendants = weak leaders – Louis the Stammerer – Charles the Fat – Louis the Child – Charles the Simple
Invasions from Outside• 9th- 10th centuries foreign invaders – Muslims - North Africa – Magyars- South Eastern Europe (Hungarians) – Vikings (Norsemen)- North Europe • Norway, Sweden, Denmark – Attacked and destroyed villages and churches – Set them on fire – Motivated people to start building from stone
Reasons for Viking Invasions1. Little arable land in Scandinavian Countries – Primogeniture custom- land handed down to first born son (younger sons without land)2. Greed3. Charlemagne subdued all Viking’s enemies, leaving them free to attack Europe
Feudalism• 9th to 13th centuries (800s- 1200s)• Powerful nobles replaced weak ineffective kings – Noble - peasants protection – Peasants worked noble – Provided relative order in this chaotic time – King granted land to nobles in exchange for military service (fief) • Noble DID NOT own the land, just kept it as payment for his services
Relationship s• Feudalism based on = relation between lord and vassal – Homage = ceremony by which becomes vassal in front of many witnesses • Speak Oath • Clasp hands • Kiss – Lord give stick or some dirt symbolizes giving him the land (investiture)
ObligationsLord Vassal• Gives land to vassal • Military service to lord• Gives protection to vassal • Financial “aid” on special• Gives justice to vassal occasions (knighthoods, marriages) • Gives advice to lord • Pay ransom if lord is captured • Could be vassal to more than one lord (complicates life)
Life of Nobility Home Dark and Courthouse gloomy & JailDamp and Treasury cold Seat of Armory Government Court
Castles• Primary function = defense• Lord’s responsibility to protect inhabitants of his land – Peasants fled to castle when danger came near• 10th century castle (Disney Castle) – High stone walls – Moats – Towering battlements – Drawbridges
Knighthood• Early Middle Ages- open to anyone who can afford it – Later- reserved for Nobility• Training start at age 7 (Academics & Skills)• Mid teens- Squire (personal servant to knight) – Care for armor, horse & weapons• Age 21- eligible for knighthood – On battle field or in ceremony
Code of Chivalry• Knight promised to live by strict code of behavior – Brave in battle – Skillful with weapons – Honest and generous – Loyal to lord – Never attack unarmed knight – Churched added spiritual responsibility to code of chivalry (protect church & venerate priesthood) • Peace of God = forbade pillaging of church property • Protection to non combatant people
•What is a skill that you used to have a long time ago but now you don’t have it anymore?
Jousts & Tournaments• Knights to use their skills during peacetime – Tournaments = pretend war • Joust – individual • Melee – group competition• Satisfied desire for excitement and entertainment – What other people had entertainment where showed off fighting skills?
The Manor• Self contained faming community – Ruled by lords – Worked by peasants• Trade, towns, and money decreased• Most people lived on large estates in countryside – Self sufficient met all daily needs of those who lived there • Imported salt, iron and tar
Every manor had:• Priest • Laborers:• Skilled workers – Make their own – Craftsman clothes – Furniture maker – Grow their own crops – Shoe maker – Make their own houses – Tool maker – Build their own roads – Clothe maker and bridges
Description of a Manor1. Village in center (near stream or crossroads)2. Peasants live in clusters of huts3. Lord’s House (Castle or Wooden House) – Up on a hill or defensible area4. Church and Priest’s House – Tall steeple (to direct eyes towards heaven) – Courthouse – Town meetings – Social gatherings – Streams, woodlands and fields for providing food
Farming the Fields• Early, two field system; later, three field system – Increased productivity of land
Typical Medieval Charlemagne’s Throne kitchen- notice the HUGE fireplaceTypical arrangementfor eating in theGreat Hall
People• Class structure: – Clergy- spiritual needs – Nobility- protection and justice – Peasants- produce food – * Freemen = peasants with specialized skills • Blacksmith • Miller • Carpenter • Did not have to work the lord’s land • Could leave and move elsewhere
Serf• Had use of land from Lord – Could grow food and provide for his family• Tied to the land – could not leave without permission of lord• Had to work on lord’s portion of the land (demesne) – Plow, sow, and harvest – Gather hay & care for lord’s cattle – Build fences, clear woodlands, etc. (week work) – Most peasants never left the manor land • Not further than 25 miles away from home