Chapter 5 Notes: Classical GreeceSection 1: Cultures of the Mountains and the Sea-Geography shapes Greek life: 1. The sea– linked w/ other societies for travel and trade 2. The land– mountains divided land into regions; created numerous small, independent communities w/ own governments; transportation difficult 3. The climate– moderate temperatures allowed for an outdoor/civic life; preserved structures/buildingsTwo cultures developed in Early Greece:Minoans:• seaborne trade, fishing, sailing• Women played significant role (priests)• writing systems unclearLinear A• core of Greek religious practice, art, politics, and literatureMycenaeans:• The first ‘Greeks’-spoke form of Greek language• Writing has been translated• rocky ridge on southern Greece; surrounded by defensive barrier• ruled by warrior-king; frequent warfare between cities
Chapter 5 Notes (cont’d)-Trojan War *10 year war w/ Troy (Turkey), Trojan HorseGreek City-States:*city-state or polis= fundamental political unit inGreece (i.e. Corinth) Map -acropolis: fortified hilltop (picture of acropolis: acropolis pic) Ancient Wonders on Greeces Acropolis*Greek Governments: 1.monarchy…..king, queen 2. aristocracy…..small group of nobles/landowners 3. oligarchy…..few powerful people -tyrants: seized control of govt. w/ local support 4. democracy…..representative govt., rule by people (Athens) The Acropolis: Deconstructed
Sparta• Conquered the Peloponnesus• Made Messenians into helots (state slaves)• Emphasis on war/keeping order in society• Training of soldiers -physical/mental toughness by mother until age 7, combat school until age 20, then became hoplites (foot soldiers) for 10 years Spartan Videos!!
Gods & Heroes-Greek legends and myths (stories told to explain natural phenomena or events ofthe distant past) Greek Gods-Gods of Olympus (12 influential gods)—pg. 132 in textbook MinotaurSection 2: The Classical Age Athenian Democracy~500 BC -development of democracy through reformers: Draco, Solon, Peisistratus (tyrant), and Cleisthenes (set stage for Athenian democracy, how?) Tribe -only free males over the age of 20 who Council of 500 Tribe completed military training could vote (10% of pop)-3 main bodies: 1. Assembly…made laws, all people voted directly on issues (direct democracy) 2. Council of 500…write laws to be voted on Archon: chief of 3. Series of courts…heard trials/sentenced criminals State of Athens
Chapter 5 Notes (cont’d)The Persian Wars (490-479 BC) -root of conflict: Greek cities fell under Persian rule in Ionia (Turkey) -Greeks revolt in 499 BC but are put down…Darius seeks revenge *First Persian War -Marathon (490 BC) -Greeks use phalanx approach; a tight rectangle formation in which soldiers held long spears out ahead of a wall of shields greek phalanx -legend of Marathon *Second Persian War (pg. 137 in textbook) -Xerxes vs. Greek allies at Thermopylae, Persians burn down Athens -Greek strategy and the movie ‘300?’….Greek victory -Battle of Salamis: Greek naval victory battle plan -Plataea: Persians give up on invasion and agree to peace settlementGolden Age of Athens-Athens, Sparta most powerful city-states-Greece establishes Delian League: alliance of Greek city-states that defended one anotherand punished Persia for their invasion—Athens gains influence/power, resentment-Athens rebuilds their city thanks to Pericles: the arts (Parthenon), democracy Peracles-Peloponnesian War (431 BC): Sparta vs. Athens; land vs. sea, Peloponnesian vs. Delianleague….years of fighting weakens both cities until Macedonia from the north takes control ofGreece
Chapter 5 Notes (cont’d)Section 3: Greek Achievements Philosophy: search for wisdom and knowledge 1. Socrates -sought truths about truth, justice, and virtue; ask questions in order to learn -philosophers should study human behavior to learn how to improve society as a whole 2. Plato -philosophers were best suited to govern other people -did not support Athenian democracy (student of Socrates) 3. Aristotle -use of reason (clear and ordered thinking) and logic (making inferences) to study the natural world -influenced development of science (taught Alexander the Great) Literature -Homer’s Epics: tell stories about great events and heroes (Illiad, Odyssey) -lyric poetry, writing of history, drama (playwriting) or tragedies (hardships of Greek heroes) Architecture/Art -sculpture, the Parthenon, painting
Chapter 5 Notes (cont’d)Section 4: Alexander the Great and His Legacy-Macedonia rises to power, King Phillip II-Alexander the Great (20 years old) defeatsPersians…creates largest empire the world had ever seen Alexander creates a new type of culture that blended elements of Greek civilization with ideas from Persia, Egypt, Central Asia, and other regions= Hellenistic or Greek-like check out Alexander’s empire!....11,000 miles in 11 years!