Landscape & ClimateLandscape Covered by Mountains No large rivers Lots of coastline How did the land influence the government?Climate Mild, rainy winters Hot summers
Agriculture Only a small part of the region good for farming Over ½ of Greeks were farmers and herders Most farming in the valleys Established agricultural colonies in Anatolia (modern-day Turkey)
Resources Lacked natural resources like precious metals Plentiful stone for buildings Coastline with many good harbors
A Seafaring People“Highways of Water” Mediterranean Sea: to the South Ionian Sea: to the west Aegean Sea: to the east Greeks became expert sailors Fish a large part of the Greek diet
Trade & Commerce Major trading partners: Egypt & Rome Exported: olive oil, wine, wool, and pottery Imported: grain, timber, animal hides, and slaves
Mycenae: The First Greek Civilization Built on the Peloponnesus Wealthy civilization; mostly traders Created writing, gold jewelry, bronze weapons, and pottery Collapsed around 1200 BC Little is known about Greece from 1200 BC – 750 BC
Greece Comes Back Greeks learned much by trading with the Phoenicians Picked up the Phoenician alphabet between 900-800 BC Learned about coins from Anatolians by 500 BC http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hL HNh4caX4Y
Greek Gods Polytheistic Divine qualities with human emotions Jealous, loving, angry, competitive Zeus & 11 major gods lived on Mt. Olympus (Olympian gods) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WP_Nei rFIkM (gods) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iMzNPE HNxcc (goddesses)
Greek Mythology- The stories of the Greek gods and goddesses, often as they interact with humans.- Two purposes Arachnehttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qW3Bbav7w4A
Honoring the Gods Built statues and temples Days were set aside to honor different gods & goddesses Festivals held to honor the 12 Olympian gods The Parthenon was a temple in Athens, built in honor of the city’s patron goddess, Athena
The Olympics Held every four years (oldest record: 776 BC) Part of a festival to honor Zeus Only men Events: foot race, wrestling, long jump, javelin and discus throw. Unmarried girls raced to honor Zeus’ wife, Hera https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FdgvKpUSaTs
Homer Blind poet (c. [about] 8th Century BC) Composed epics Oral tradition The Iliad The Odyssey Major influence in Western literature
The Iliad Story of Greek heroes during the Trojan War Included story of AchillesLegend has it that the babyAchilles was dipped into theriver Styx as a way to protect him.The only part that didn’t get wetwas his heel.
The Odyssey Story of Greek hero Odysseus and his trip home after the Trojan War Included the Cyclops and the sirens Video – first 12 minutes The Cyclops, a one-eyed monster, is one of the creatures that stops Odysseus from getting home to his wife, Penelope.
Aesop’s Fables- Aesop was believed to be a Greek slave- Today, we believe it was a pseudonym- Used animals to tell moral lessons- Tortoise & the Hare- https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2DrKmpuKhKE
Monarchs & Aristocrats Monarchy: Aristocracy: By 700’s BC, most city-states had moved from monarchy to aristocracy Do you think this was a good move?
Oligarchy Oligarchy: What is the difference between an aristocracy & an oligarchy?
Tyrants Leader who took power illegally Not of noble birth – often a general Urged the poor to support him Why would the poor do this? Some helped the poor What is a “tyrant” today?Nicias was an Athenian general andlater Tyrant
Athenian Democracy: It’s a start By 500’s poor citizens demanded a voice in government Who is a “citizen”? Gradual reform led by Solon & Cleisthenes
Solon Ruled 594 – 560 BC Freed people who had been enslaved due to debt Reorganized Athenian Society – How? All citizens could serve in the assembly.
Cleisthenes By 500 BC took power away from nobles Reorganized citizens into 10 tribes based on geography Each tribe elected 1 of the 10 military commanders
The Council of Five Hundred How many? From where? Who was eligible? How selected? How often?
Direct Democracy The type in Athens Citizens make political decisions directly How is this different from democracy in the US? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J315e03RkOA
How was Athenian Democracy limited? Ostracism: the assembly could vote a person out of Athens for up to 10 years
The Responsibilities of a Citizen Military service Serve on juries
Spartan Government Ruled by 2 kings Council of Elders proposed laws All Spartan citizens part of the Assembly Assembly elected officials & voted on laws
Social Groups of Sparta Citizens: Free noncitizens: Helots:
Spartan Education At age 7 boys moved to military barracks During what ages did all male citizens serve in the army?
Spartan Women What was expected of Spartan women? Girls were given athletic training & expected to be strong Women could own property
Athenian Society What four classes existed in Athens? 1/3 of population enslaved Where did the Athenians find slaves?
Athenian Education What was the purpose of education in Athens? Studied logic, oratory, reading, writing, math, poetry, and music
Athenian Women What were the expectations for Athenian women? Girls did not attend school.
The Persian Wars 490 BC: Persians invade Athens to punish a colonial revolt Athenians defeated the Persians 480 BC: Persians invade Greece again Sparta helps Athens by fighting for two days at Thermopylae. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AuihHUFEqPM ClassZone
Pericles Wealthy citizen of Athens By 460 BC, the strongest ruler in Athens What three goals did Pericles have for Athens? How was Pericles able to persuade people to back his ideas?
Changing Athenian Democracy “Everybody is equal under the law.” Should we pay public officials?
Expanding the Empire Delian League: an alliance of Greek City-States Organized by Athens; headquartered on Delos By 454 BC treasury moved to Athens Why did this make other city-states unhappy? The alliance became an Athenian Empire
Beautifying Athens Where did Pericles get the money? The Parthenon Built on the Acropolis in Athens Temple to Athena http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xP-FsX0QW88
Peloponnesian War Why did city-states fear and resent Athens? Sparta created the Peloponnesian League as a rival to Athens 431 BC: Sparta declares war on Athens
Philip II Leader of Macedonian kingdom (North of Greece) 23 years old As a hostage in Thebes, studied Greek military 338 BC: conquers a weakened Greece 336 BC: assassinated and succeeded by his son, Alexander
Alexander the Great King at 20 Crushed a rebellion in Thebes Defeated the Persians by invading Persian-controlled Egypt How was Alexander received in Egypt? Conquered land as far east as India Died of a fever at 32
Legacy of Alexander Spread Greek culture and language encouraged local cultures to blend with Greek Hellenistic cultureAlexandria, Egypt Founded in 332 BC Housed the greatest library of the Classical world http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0LsrkWDCvxg (2 min mark – 5:50)
Greek Philosophy Logical study of basic truths about the worldSocrates used questions to encourage examination Put to death by AthensPlato Follower of Socrates Started a school that lasted 900 yearsAristotle Student of Plato Created the Lyceum Tutored Alexander the Great for three years Greece -- Netflix
Science & TechnologyGreek contributions to Astronomy Accurate estimation of the circumference of Earth Theory that the sun revolved around the earth; disproved in 1500sGreek contributions to Math & Physics Euclid organized knowledge of geometry Archimedes created the lever