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Ancient greece slide share


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Ancient greece slide share

  1. 1. TheGeography ofGreece
  2. 2. Landscape & ClimateLandscape Covered by Mountains No large rivers Lots of coastline How did the land influence the government?Climate Mild, rainy winters Hot summers
  3. 3. Agriculture Only a small part of the region good for farming Over ½ of Greeks were farmers and herders Most farming in the valleys Established agricultural colonies in Anatolia (modern-day Turkey)
  4. 4. Resources Lacked natural resources like precious metals Plentiful stone for buildings Coastline with many good harbors
  5. 5. A Seafaring People“Highways of Water” Mediterranean Sea: to the South Ionian Sea: to the west Aegean Sea: to the east Greeks became expert sailors Fish a large part of the Greek diet
  6. 6. Trade & Commerce Major trading partners: Egypt & Rome Exported: olive oil, wine, wool, and pottery Imported: grain, timber, animal hides, and slaves
  7. 7. Mycenae: The First Greek Civilization Built on the Peloponnesus Wealthy civilization; mostly traders Created writing, gold jewelry, bronze weapons, and pottery Collapsed around 1200 BC Little is known about Greece from 1200 BC – 750 BC
  8. 8. Greece Comes Back Greeks learned much by trading with the Phoenicians Picked up the Phoenician alphabet between 900-800 BC Learned about coins from Anatolians by 500 BC HNh4caX4Y
  9. 9. Greek Gods Polytheistic Divine qualities with human emotions Jealous, loving, angry, competitive Zeus & 11 major gods lived on Mt. Olympus (Olympian gods) rFIkM (gods) HNxcc (goddesses)
  10. 10. Greek Mythology- The stories of the Greek gods and goddesses, often as they interact with humans.- Two purposes Arachne
  11. 11. Honoring the Gods Built statues and temples Days were set aside to honor different gods & goddesses Festivals held to honor the 12 Olympian gods The Parthenon was a temple in Athens, built in honor of the city’s patron goddess, Athena
  12. 12. The Olympics Held every four years (oldest record: 776 BC) Part of a festival to honor Zeus Only men Events: foot race, wrestling, long jump, javelin and discus throw. Unmarried girls raced to honor Zeus’ wife, Hera
  13. 13. Early Greek Literature
  14. 14. Homer Blind poet (c. [about] 8th Century BC) Composed epics Oral tradition The Iliad The Odyssey Major influence in Western literature
  15. 15. The Iliad Story of Greek heroes during the Trojan War Included story of AchillesLegend has it that the babyAchilles was dipped into theriver Styx as a way to protect him.The only part that didn’t get wetwas his heel.
  16. 16. The Odyssey Story of Greek hero Odysseus and his trip home after the Trojan War Included the Cyclops and the sirens Video – first 12 minutes The Cyclops, a one-eyed monster, is one of the creatures that stops Odysseus from getting home to his wife, Penelope.
  17. 17. Aesop’s Fables- Aesop was believed to be a Greek slave- Today, we believe it was a pseudonym- Used animals to tell moral lessons- Tortoise & the Hare-
  18. 18. The City-State& Democracy
  19. 19. City-States Basic form of government Greek word for “city”= polis Most less than 20,000 people Athens & Sparta largest
  20. 20. Agora Open space for business and public meetings Center of city life
  21. 21. Acropolis Fortified (protected) hillside Literally means: “high city” Military purpose Later, temples and palaces built here
  22. 22. Types of Government
  23. 23. Monarchs & Aristocrats Monarchy: Aristocracy: By 700’s BC, most city-states had moved from monarchy to aristocracy Do you think this was a good move?
  24. 24. Oligarchy Oligarchy: What is the difference between an aristocracy & an oligarchy?
  25. 25. Tyrants Leader who took power illegally Not of noble birth – often a general Urged the poor to support him Why would the poor do this? Some helped the poor What is a “tyrant” today?Nicias was an Athenian general andlater Tyrant
  26. 26. Athenian Democracy: It’s a start By 500’s poor citizens demanded a voice in government Who is a “citizen”? Gradual reform led by Solon & Cleisthenes
  27. 27. Solon Ruled 594 – 560 BC Freed people who had been enslaved due to debt Reorganized Athenian Society – How? All citizens could serve in the assembly.
  28. 28. Cleisthenes By 500 BC took power away from nobles Reorganized citizens into 10 tribes based on geography Each tribe elected 1 of the 10 military commanders
  29. 29. The Council of Five Hundred How many? From where? Who was eligible? How selected? How often?
  30. 30. Direct Democracy The type in Athens Citizens make political decisions directly How is this different from democracy in the US?
  31. 31. How was Athenian Democracy limited? Ostracism: the assembly could vote a person out of Athens for up to 10 years
  32. 32. The Responsibilities of a Citizen Military service Serve on juries
  33. 33. Sparta Peloponnesus Militaristic society
  34. 34. Spartan Government Ruled by 2 kings Council of Elders proposed laws All Spartan citizens part of the Assembly Assembly elected officials & voted on laws
  35. 35. Social Groups of Sparta Citizens: Free noncitizens: Helots:
  36. 36. Spartan Education At age 7 boys moved to military barracks During what ages did all male citizens serve in the army?
  37. 37. Spartan Women What was expected of Spartan women? Girls were given athletic training & expected to be strong Women could own property
  38. 38. Athenian Society What four classes existed in Athens? 1/3 of population enslaved Where did the Athenians find slaves?
  39. 39. Athenian Education What was the purpose of education in Athens? Studied logic, oratory, reading, writing, math, poetry, and music
  40. 40. Athenian Women What were the expectations for Athenian women? Girls did not attend school.
  41. 41. The Persian Wars 490 BC: Persians invade Athens to punish a colonial revolt Athenians defeated the Persians 480 BC: Persians invade Greece again Sparta helps Athens by fighting for two days at Thermopylae. ClassZone
  42. 42. ClassicalGreece
  43. 43. Pericles Wealthy citizen of Athens By 460 BC, the strongest ruler in Athens What three goals did Pericles have for Athens? How was Pericles able to persuade people to back his ideas?
  44. 44. Changing Athenian Democracy “Everybody is equal under the law.” Should we pay public officials?
  45. 45. Expanding the Empire Delian League: an alliance of Greek City-States Organized by Athens; headquartered on Delos By 454 BC treasury moved to Athens Why did this make other city-states unhappy? The alliance became an Athenian Empire
  46. 46. Beautifying Athens Where did Pericles get the money? The Parthenon Built on the Acropolis in Athens Temple to Athena
  47. 47. Peloponnesian War Why did city-states fear and resent Athens? Sparta created the Peloponnesian League as a rival to Athens 431 BC: Sparta declares war on Athens
  48. 48. Sparta AthensAdvantagesStrategy
  49. 49. Peloponnesian War 430 BC: a plague kills 1/3 of all Athenians 421 BC: truce signed 415 BC: war breaks out again 411 BC: Persians join the Spartans 404 BC: Athens surrenders
  50. 50. Philip II & Alexander
  51. 51. Philip II Leader of Macedonian kingdom (North of Greece) 23 years old As a hostage in Thebes, studied Greek military 338 BC: conquers a weakened Greece 336 BC: assassinated and succeeded by his son, Alexander
  52. 52. Alexander the Great King at 20 Crushed a rebellion in Thebes Defeated the Persians by invading Persian-controlled Egypt How was Alexander received in Egypt? Conquered land as far east as India Died of a fever at 32
  53. 53. Legacy of Alexander Spread Greek culture and language encouraged local cultures to blend with Greek Hellenistic cultureAlexandria, Egypt Founded in 332 BC Housed the greatest library of the Classical world (2 min mark – 5:50)
  54. 54. Culture ofClassicalGreece
  55. 55. The Arts & Architecture Wealthy citizens sponsored tragic & comedic plays Greek sculpture aimed at capturing the “ideal” form Greek architects made use of columns
  56. 56. Ancient Classical
  57. 57. 3 types of Greek Columns
  58. 58. Greek Philosophy Logical study of basic truths about the worldSocrates used questions to encourage examination Put to death by AthensPlato Follower of Socrates Started a school that lasted 900 yearsAristotle Student of Plato Created the Lyceum Tutored Alexander the Great for three years Greece -- Netflix
  59. 59. Science & TechnologyGreek contributions to Astronomy Accurate estimation of the circumference of Earth Theory that the sun revolved around the earth; disproved in 1500sGreek contributions to Math & Physics Euclid organized knowledge of geometry Archimedes created the lever