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Chapter 3 Part1- Ancient Greece


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Lecture Notes from Chapter 3
Ancient Greece
Week 3

World History
Bob Jones University Press

Published in: Education
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Chapter 3 Part1- Ancient Greece

  1. 1. Chapter 3 1
  2. 2. Early Greek World
  3. 3.  This civilization was developing on the island of Crete while Egypt and Mesopotamia were flourishing. Aegean Civilizations  Minoan (island of Crete)  Mycenaean (mainland Greece)
  4. 4. Minoans Trade with Fertile Crescent and Egypt  Olive oil & pottery Love of art and beauty Knossos = capital  Flush toilets  Bath tubs  Indoor plumbing
  5. 5. Mycenaeans Mainland Greece Destroyed Minoans 1400 B.C. Love military  War with Troy 10 years  Gained entrance through Trojan Horse 1200 B.C. conquered by Dorians from North
  6. 6. Greek Dark Ages New invaders Cultural centers neglected Adopted a more simple life in villages Blended together Minoan and Mycenaean cultures = GREEK CULTURE Iliad & Odyssey  Heroic figures  Brutal warfare  Adventurous exploits
  7. 7. Mythology Played dominant role in Greek life Myths = to explain their beliefs about life, world, god 12 gods/goddesses Zeus = king of Gods  Apollo = son Athena = wisdom Many gods had human characteristics (anthropomorphism)
  8. 8. Olympic Games Every 4 years on Mt. Olympia Physical contest to please the gods Goal = to attain physical perfection Rare cooperation between Greek city-states
  9. 9. Greek City-States
  10. 10. Rise of City-states Greeks isolated from each other by mountains  Shared culture and language  Lacked political unity Polis = city-state; basic political unit  Source of:  Authority  Protection  livlihood
  11. 11. Sparta vs. Athens Southern Greece  Eastern Greece Strict military state  Creative and commercial Highest goal = best warrior  Highest Goal = individualism for Sparta & preserve culture Government controlled all  Early rule by monarch aspects of life  Later oligarchy Even women encouraged to be physically fit!  Solon created Council of 400 Oligarchy government at its  Represented all sections of best! Athens  Peloponnesian League to protect against Athens  After Solon, tyranny  Pericles – rule of people
  12. 12. Persian Wars Persian wanted to invade Greece Greece united against Persians  490 BC - Greeks victory 480 BC- Persia invade again, Battle of Thermopylae  Spartans stay and fight till death Battle of Salamis Bay  Xerxes destroy Athens  Greeks trick and defeat Persian navy  Stopped Persian invasion but 200 yrs. still bother Greeks
  13. 13. Periclean Age High patriotism & self confidence  Especially in Athens (became leading city-state) Delian League  Defensive alliance against outsiders attach Pericles = leader of Athens (460 BC – 429 BC)  Advances in  Thought  Art/Literature/Drama - Every adult male citizen can vote and hold office  Science - Government controlled by the  Architecture people
  14. 14. Peloponnesian War 431 BC – 404 BC  Devastating civil war  Sparta vs. Athens  Sparta had:  Land strength  Allied with Persia to win over Athens  Athens had:  Control over seas  Plague killed many Outcome: Oligarchies in power again. Constant uprisings. Disunity
  15. 15. Rise of Macedonia King Phillip unite Macedonia and Greece under rule  Tolerance & appreciation for Greek Culture 336 BC- His son, Alexander takes throne (20 yrs old)  Taught by Aristotle  Also like Greek culture  Spread it throughout empire
  16. 16. Bible Prophesy In the Bible, Daniel Chapter 8 makes detailed prophecies about a future Greek leader. Three hundred years later, Alexander the Great would fulfill these prophecies to the letter. Prophecy: A future Greek leader will advance rapidly from the west. And as I was considering, suddenly a male goat [the Greek Empire] came from the west, across the surface of the whole earth, without touching the ground [this indicates fantastic speed]; and the goat had a notable horn between his eyes [Alexander the Great]. — Daniel 8:5 Fulfillment: Alexander the Great advanced so rapidly from the west, that military analysts to this day marvel at the speed and efficiency with which he moved his forces. Later on in Chapter 8, Daniel specifically identifies the goat as Greece– a remarkable prophecy made 300 years before Greece would rise to power. Prophecy: Alexander the Great would attack and destroy the Media-Persian Empire, the dominant empire in the world.] Daniel 8:5-7 Fulfillment: Alexander destroyed the Media-Persian Empire.
  17. 17.  Prophecy: He will die when his power is strong…but when he became strong, the large horn was broken… — Daniel8:8 Fulfillment: Alexander died after conquering the known world, at age 33 Prophecy: His empire will be divided into four smaller empires, none of which would be as powerful as Alexander’s empire.…and in place of it four notable ones came up toward the four windsof heaven… — Daniel 8:8…four kingdoms shall arise out of that nation, but not with its power. —Daniel 8:22 Fulfillment: Alexander’s empire was divided among four of his generals: Lysimachus, Cassander, Seleucus, & Ptolemy.  None of these empires ever equaled Alexander’s empire in power.
  18. 18. Divisions 323 BC- Alexander dies of fever (age 30ish) Bible prophesy fulfilled  Empire divided into 4 parts  Generals each took a part  Fought with one another
  19. 19. Government Types
  20. 20. Monarchy
  21. 21. Oligarchy
  22. 22. Tyranny
  23. 23. Democracy
  24. 24. The fateful century
  25. 25. Rise of macedonia
  26. 26. Greek culture