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Introduction to the trigeminal nerve ‫‬dental surgery
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Introduction to the trigeminal nerve ‫‬dental surgery

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Introduction to the trigeminal nerve ‫‬dental surgery Ophthalmic nerve dental surgery Maxillary nerve Mandibular nerve

Introduction to the trigeminal nerve ‫‬dental surgery Ophthalmic nerve dental surgery Maxillary nerve Mandibular nerve


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  • 1. Introduction to The Trigeminal Nerve
  • 2. What are cranial nerves? • Cranial nerves are nerves that emerge directly from the brain • There are 12 pairs of cranial nerves • Only the first 2 originate from the cerebrum, the others originate from the brain stem • Trigeminal nerve is the FIFTH cranial nerve
  • 3. • • • • The cranial nerves Ⅰ Olfactory nerve Ⅱ Optic nerve Ⅲ Oculomotor nerve Ⅳ Trochlear nerve • Ⅴ Trigeminal nerve • • • • • • • Ⅵ Abducent nerve Ⅶ Facial nerve Ⅷ Acoustic nerve Ⅸ Glossopharyngeal nerve Ⅹ Vagus nerve Ⅺ Accessory nerve Ⅻ Hypoglossal nerve
  • 4. Classification of cranial nerves • Sensory cranial nerves: – contain only afferent (sensory) fibers • Motor cranial nerves: – contain only efferent (motor) fibers • Mixed nerves: – contain both sensory and motor fibers
  • 5. TRIGEMINAL NERVE
  • 6. Trigeminal nerve • 5th cranial nerve (CN5) • Largest cranial nerve • MIXED CRANIAL NERVE • Sensory to face – 3 dermatomes • Motor to muscles of mastication
  • 7. View of brain from below showing trigeminal ganglion and trigeminal nerves
  • 8. Nuclei • Sensory nuclei – largest cranial nerve nuclei • Sensory nuclei –mid-brain, pons and medulla • Sensory nuclei – 3 parts – Mesencephalic nucleus – Primary/Main sensory (pontine) nucleus – Spinal trigeminal nucleus • Motor nucleus – mid-pons
  • 9. Trigeminal ganglion (semilunar/gasserian /gasser’s ganglion) • Semilunar in shape • Situated in Meckel’s cavity /cave on ‘Trigeminal depression’ present on petrous temporal bone • Contains the cell bodies of incoming sensory nerve fibers • Convex surface below to which the 3 nerve roots converge: – Opthalmic division – Maxillary division – Mandibular division
  • 10. Trigeminal ganglion - shape To sensory nuclei ro Motor 5 1 ot r luna i Sem glion Gan 2 3 Foramen ovale To muscles of mastication/ swallowing Foramen rotundum Superior orbital fissure
  • 11. Trigeminal dermatomes • Areas of cutaneous sensory innervation • Show very little overlap • Injection of local anesthesia shows loss of sensation from very well defined areas • Knowledge of dermatomes helps in – Locating site of nerve injury – Testing result of nerve block
  • 12. V1- OPTHALMIC DIVISION V2 – MAXILLARY DIVISION V3 – MANDIBULAR DIVISION
  • 13. Applied anatomy • Knowledge of dermatomes and their nerve supply helps locate site of nerve injury • Also helps in demonstrating effect of nerve block • Intracranial causes of trigeminal neuralgia • Pain control and modulation
  • 14. Stimulus – pin prick
  • 15. THANK YOU