2. PrinciplesA fundamental, primary or general law or truth from which others are derived.
3. Growth & Development ? Growth : Refers to an increase in some quantity over time. The quantity can be ; Physical (e.g., growth in height ) Development: Development is systematic and orderly change, organisms experience as they live and either gain or lose abilities.
4. The general pattern of growth anddevelopment1) Physical structure or Physique - It involves changes in terms of height, weight, body proportions and general physical appearance.2)Internal organs – It involves changes in the functions of glands, nervous system, circulatory, digestive, muscular, reproduct ive and etc.
5. Principles of Growth anddevelopment1)Continuity2)Sequentiality3) Generality to Specificity4)Differentiality5)Development proceeds from the head downward6) Development proceeds from the centre of the body outward7)Development depends on maturation and learning
6. Principles of Growth anddevelopment8)Development proceeds from the simple to more complex9)Growth is a personal matter10)Growth comes from within11)Growth has certain characteristics common at particular stages12)Growth is gradual and orderly but uneven
7. Continuity Growth and Development is a continues process from conception to death. In the early years of life, development consists of changes that lead the child to maturity not only of body size and functioning, but also of behaviour. . Even after maturity has been attained, development does not end. Changes continue which lead to the period of life known as senescence or old age. These changes continue until death ends the life cycle.
8. Sequentiality Every species, whether animal or human, follows a pattern of development peculiar to it. This pattern in general is the same for all individuals. Social and behavioural scientists increasingly have come to see development as a relationship between organism and environment in a transaction or collaboration. Individuals work with and affect their environment, and in turn the environment works with and affects them
9. SequentialityAll children follow a development patternwith one stage leading to the next.Ex - Infants stand Before they walk; drawcircles before they make squares
10. Generality to Specificity Development proceeds from general to specific. In all areas of development, general activities always precedes specific activity. For example; - The fetus moves its whole body but incapable of making specific responses -Infants wave their arms randomly. They can make such specific responses as reaching out for an object near them.
11. Differentiality The tempo of development is not even. Individuals differ in the rate of growth and development. Boys and girls have different development rates. Each part of the body has its own particular rate of growth. Development does not occur at an even pace. There are periods of great intensity and equilibrium and there are periods of imbalance. Development achieves a plateau and this may occur at any level or between levels.
12. Development proceeds from theHead downward This principle describes the direction of growth and development. The head region starts growth at first, following by which other organs starts developing. The child gains control of the head first, then the arms and then the legs. Infants develop control of the head and face movements at first two months. In next few months they are able to lift themselves up by using their arms. Next gain control over leg and able to crawl, stand, walk, run, jump, climb, day by day.
13. Development proceeds fromthe centre of the body outward The directional sequence of development during both prenatal and postnatal stages may either be (i) from head to foot, or (ii) from the central axis to the extremities of the body. The spinal cord develops before outer parts of the body. The child’s arms develops before the hands, the hands and feet develops before the fingers and toes. Fingers and toe muscles are the last to develop in physical development.
14. The directional sequence of development stagesmay either be (A) from head to foot, or (B) fromthe central axis to the extremities of the body.
15. Development depends onmaturation and learning Maturation refers to the sequential characteristic of biological growth and development. The biological changes occur in sequential order and give children new abilities. Changes in the brain and nervous system account largely for maturation. And help children to improve in thinking and motor skills. Children must mature to a, certain point before they can progress to new skills.
16. Development proceeds from thesimple to more complex Children use their cognitive and language skills to reason and solve problems. Children at first are able hold the big things by using both arms, In the next part able to hold things in a single hand, then only able to pick small objects like peas, cereals etc. Children when able to hold pencil, first starts draw circles then squares then only letters after that the words.
17. Growth is a personalmatter Each child grows in his own personal manner. He/she should be permitted to grow at his/her own rate. If we expects too much, he/she may does even less than he/she is able to do.
18. Growth comes from within One or surrounding environment can encourage or can hinder the energy of a child, but the drive force that pushes a child to grow is carried inside him. Parent or teacher job is to clear the track, guide the child with loving acceptance and then relax and enjoy.
19. 11)Growth has certain characteristicscommon at particular stages12)Growth is gradual and orderly butuneven