Cascao Cairo Power Relations Nile Basin

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Cascao Cairo Power Relations Nile Basin

  1. 1. POWER RELATIONS, CONFLICT AND COOPERATION IN THE NILE BASIN Ana Elisa Cascão King’s College of London Presentation to: “ The Curse of Scarcity and Abundance? Water and Oil Wars in the Gulf and Nile Basin ” American University of Cairo 5th April 2008
  2. 2. NILE – HYDROLOGY AND POLITICS <ul><li>NILE RIVER BASIN </li></ul><ul><li>1 River </li></ul><ul><li>2 sub-Basins </li></ul><ul><li>10 riparians </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal contribution </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal utilisation </li></ul><ul><li>Disparity of numbers </li></ul>Main provider Main user
  3. 3. NILE - WATER RESOURCES AVAILABILITY NON-NILE
  4. 4. NILE - WATER RESOURCES AVAILABILITY AND UTILISATION
  5. 5. DEPENDENCY AND CONTROL
  6. 6. INEQUALITIES = CONFLICT? Control Allocation Contribution Utilisation
  7. 7. CONFLICT OF INTERESTS Historical and acquired rights Potential needs and uses “ New water” Storage infrastructures Hydropower Irrigation Extreme dependence Water for development CONFLICT OF LANGUAGES
  8. 8. POWER RELATIONS MATTER! EGYPT SUDAN ETHIOPIA Geography Geography Geography Material power Material power Material power Bargaining power Bargaining power Bargaining power Ideational power Ideational power Ideational power Two Hydropolitical Dynamics: Hegemony & Counter-Hegemony (Adapted from Zeitoun, 2005)
  9. 9. GEOPOLITICS ARE CHANGING! USA CHINA EUROPE SUDAN ETHIOPIA EGYPT World Bank
  10. 10. COOPERATION = EQUITY? Equitable utilisation Development Benefits Nile Basin Initiative
  11. 11. CURRENT COOPERATION IN THE NILE BASIN <ul><li>NILE BASIN INITIATIVE </li></ul><ul><li>Since 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>Multilateral cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: Project-by-project </li></ul><ul><li>“ Benefit-sharing” </li></ul><ul><li>Godfather: World Bank </li></ul><ul><li>Economic integration </li></ul><ul><li>COOPERATIVE FRAMEWORK AGREEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Since 1997 </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: New Nile Treaty </li></ul><ul><li>Equitable Utilisation + No harm </li></ul><ul><li>“ Water-sharing” </li></ul><ul><li>Constructed Ambiguity </li></ul><ul><li>Nile Basin Commission = Funding </li></ul>
  12. 12. CONFLICT PREVENTION* Planned Water Development Generation of Benefits Downstream Alternative Water Resources Regional Virtual Water Control of expansion of commercial agriculture Relinquish Sovereignty Strong Water Institutions Neutral Knowledge Ethics Multi-level Cooperation New Inclusive Agreeement POLITICAL FLEXIBILITY
  13. 13. Thanks for your attention!

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