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Hydropolitics TWM Global 2010 (I+II)

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Hydropolitics TWM Global 2010 (I+II)

  1. 1. Ana Elisa Cascão - SIWI Presentation to TWM Global 2010 Maputo, Mozambique HYDROPOLITICS (I): Water and Power
  2. 2. Structure of the Presentation <ul><li>Today, 13:00 - 14:30 </li></ul><ul><li>Water everywhere? </li></ul><ul><li>What is Hydropolitics? </li></ul><ul><li>Water: Transboundary ≠ Shared </li></ul><ul><li>Today, 14:45 - 17:00 </li></ul><ul><li>Water and Power Relations </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Hydropolitical conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Tomorrow, 8:30-10:00 </li></ul><ul><li>Hydropolitical Cooperation </li></ul>Exercise 1: Assessing power relations in transboundary river basins Exercise 2: Making the pie bigger
  3. 3. Water everywhere? Freshwater
  4. 4. Water everywhere? Surface water
  5. 5. Groundwater + Surface Water Small water... HYDROPOLITICS big politics!
  6. 6. Hydropolitics: is there a definition? What can we see in this picture? Power Water Control Merowe Dam, Sudan
  7. 7. HYDROPOLITICS: ‘ who gets what water , when, where and how?’
  8. 8. Water: a complex resource... Natural resource Social resource Economic resource Cultural resource Political resource
  9. 9. Water: a complex resource...
  10. 10. Water: a transboundary political resource Enough water for You and Me?
  11. 11. Water Resources: Transboundary ≠ Shared Nile Jordan Euphrates-Tigris <ul><li>3 BASINS: </li></ul><ul><li>Transboundary river basins </li></ul><ul><li>But not ( equitably ) shared </li></ul><ul><li>water resources </li></ul>Why? Asymmetric Power Relations
  12. 12. Asymmetric Power Relations: explanatory factor Geography Material power Bargaining power Ideational power 4 PILLARS OF POWER Framework of Hydro-Hegemony Zeitoun and Warner 2006
  13. 13. GEOGRAPHICAL POWER <ul><li>Riparian Position: </li></ul><ul><li>Downstream </li></ul><ul><li>Midstream </li></ul><ul><li>Upstream </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Contribution to river flow </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for water utilisation </li></ul><ul><li>Suitability for hydraulic infrastructure </li></ul>
  14. 14. MATERIAL POWER Economic development Military power Political stability and influence ‘ Water flows uphill towards money’ ‘ Who calls the shots?’
  15. 15. BARGAINING POWER: in interstate relations and negotiations WHO CONTROLS THE NEGOTIATIONS? WHO CONTROLS THE AGREEMENTS? WHO CONTROLS THE NUMBERS? WHO CONTROLS THE AGENDA? WHO CONTROLS THE LEGITIMACY? WHO PLAYS BETTER WITH INTERNATIONAL LAW? WHO HAS ACCESS TO INVESTMENT?
  16. 16. IDEATIONAL POWER: Power to influence perceptions Asymmetric Knowledge Sanctioned Discourse Incentives Playing with time Silent Diplomacy/ Cooperation
  17. 17. EXERCISE 1: Assessing power relations in transboundary river basins
  18. 18. <ul><li>Select 3 or 4 riparian states from your basin and assess the four dimensions of power for each of them </li></ul><ul><li>Power dimensions to take into account: </li></ul><ul><li>Classify each dimension as Strong , Middle , or Weak </li></ul>EXERCISE 1: Assessing power relations in transboundary river basins <ul><li>Geography: </li></ul><ul><li>Riparian position </li></ul><ul><li>Contribution to water </li></ul><ul><li>availability in the Basin </li></ul><ul><li>Suitability for hydraulic </li></ul><ul><li>projects </li></ul><ul><li>Material </li></ul><ul><li>Power: </li></ul><ul><li>Economic development </li></ul><ul><li>Military power </li></ul><ul><li>Political stability </li></ul><ul><li>Political influence </li></ul><ul><li>in the region </li></ul><ul><li>Bargaining </li></ul><ul><li>power: </li></ul><ul><li>Water “numbers” </li></ul><ul><li>and information available </li></ul><ul><li>Power to influence agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Power to set what </li></ul><ul><li>can or cannot be negotiated </li></ul><ul><li>Power to claim legitimacy </li></ul><ul><li>(e.g. prior use) </li></ul><ul><li>Position concerning </li></ul><ul><li>international water law </li></ul><ul><li>Access to international funding </li></ul><ul><li>Ideational </li></ul><ul><li>Power: </li></ul><ul><li>Power to influence knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>production and sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Power to influence discourse </li></ul><ul><li>Available incentives to </li></ul><ul><li>influence neighbouring countries </li></ul><ul><li>Time factors (it can wait) </li></ul><ul><li>Silence factors (it can be hidden) </li></ul><ul><li>Power to play with ambiguity </li></ul><ul><li>Power to influence cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>process and agenda </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>At the end, we must be able to visualise Power Asymmetries between riparians, e.g.: </li></ul><ul><li>In your basin, how asymmetric power relations are? </li></ul><ul><li>How determinant is power in the control, utilisation & allocation of water resources in your basin? </li></ul>EXERCISE 1: Assessing power relations in transboundary river basins
  20. 20. HYDROPOLITICS (I) * What is Hydropolitics? * Water is a political resource * Transboundary ≠ Shared * Power in transboundary basins matters!
  21. 22. HYDROPOLITICS (II): Water and Conflict Lake Tiberias Jordan  Syria   Israel  West Bank
  22. 23. WATER and CONFLICT Armed Conflict Shiva, 2002 Political/Diplomatic conflict Social/Environmental Conflict
  23. 24. Where can we find hydropolitical conflicts? Mega-dams Privati-sation Pollution Over-exploitation Over-exploitation Mega-dams Privati-sation
  24. 25. Water conflict: the Jordan River Basin <ul><li>Who gets what water , </li></ul><ul><li>when, where and how? </li></ul><ul><li>5 riparians: Israel, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon and Palestine </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal allocation and utilisation of water resources </li></ul>Phillips 2007
  25. 26. Water conflict: Jordan River Basin <ul><li>Asymmetric power relations among riparians </li></ul><ul><li>Several conflict events ( militarised/armed )/Very limited cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Jordan Basin: Extreme case of water-related conflict </li></ul>
  26. 27. Interstate water conflict is rare  More conflictive More cooperative  Wolf at al 2003 Diplomatic, strong or mild verbal official hostility
  27. 28. Riparian A Riparian B DON’T  Agree in positions and needs  Share data and information  Engage in negotiations  Politically commit  Collaborate / Cooperate  Have common projects DO  Securitise water issues  Use national-based arguments  Classify information  Refuse concessions  Delay negotitions  Use threats against neighbours Riparian A Riparian B Water Political/Diplomatic Conflict: most common situation Deadlock
  28. 29. <ul><li>HYDROPOLITICS (II) </li></ul>* Water can be a catalyst for conflict(s) * Interstate (armed) water conflict is rare * Political/Diplomatic water conflicts are common Tomorrow: Hydropolitical cooperation
  29. 30. For tomorrow: How to overcome the deadlock? Way forward? Riparian A Riparian B

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