Cascao Hydropolitics TWM Lake Victoria 2009 (II)


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  • POLITICAL COMMITMENT prior negotiation on the benefits shared by all and a consensus on the costs and benefits distribution (“Key for cost recovery and charges”) Manantali: hydropower for all – Producible energy distribution: Mali 52%, Mauritania 15%, Senegal 33% – Construction costs: Mali 35,30% / Mauritania 22,60% / Senegal 42,10% Irrigation in the low Valley: – Manantali dam is located in Mali – Produces electricity especially for Mali – Its releases (plus Diama dam) allow for irrigation in the downstream valley throughout the year
  • Here are some of the current cooperation jargons Because the process of cooperation is political, usually the process blocks when serious politicsl decisions have to be taken... When countries have to commit themselves to an institutional and legal framework!
  • Niger riparians: Benin , Burkina Faso , Cameroon , Chad , Côte d'Ivoire , Guinea , Mali , Niger and Nigeria Lake Chad riparians: Cameroon, Niger, Nigeria and Chad. In 1994, the Central African Republic (Algeria, Sudan and Libya not members) Nubian Aquifer: Egypt, Sudan, Lybia and Chad Lake Victoria: Uganda, Kenya and Tanzania
  • Move away from water-sharing conflict “ Basket of benefits” Positive-Sum game Nile Basin: testing-ground
  • Nile Basin Initiative: Joint projects with potential for benefits Examples Hydropower production and trade Watershed management Irrigation development (upstream)
  • EXAMPLES: Equatorial Nile: Regional Rusumo Falls Hydroelectric and Multipurpose Project Eastern Nile: Joint Multipurpose Project (JMP)
  • Cascao Hydropolitics TWM Lake Victoria 2009 (II)

    1. 1. Ana Elisa Cascão Presentation to TWM Lake Victoria Kigali, Rwanda – 26 October 2009 Hydropolitics: Water, Power and Cooperation (II) Lake Tiberias Jordan  Syria   Israel  West Bank
    2. 2. Water conflict: example from the Jordan River Basin <ul><li>Who gets what water , when, where and how? </li></ul><ul><li>4 riparians: Israel, Jordan, Syria and Palestine </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal utilisation and allocation of water </li></ul><ul><li>Asymmetric power among riparians </li></ul><ul><li>Several conflict events / </li></ul><ul><li>Limited cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Jordan Basin: Extreme case of water-related conflict </li></ul>
    3. 3. Water conflict: most common situation Riparian A Riparian B Deadlock <ul><li>DON’T </li></ul><ul><li>Agree in positions and needs </li></ul><ul><li>Share data and information </li></ul><ul><li>Engage in negotiations </li></ul><ul><li>Politcally commit </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborate/ Cooperate </li></ul><ul><li>Have common projects </li></ul><ul><li>DO </li></ul><ul><li>Securitise water issues </li></ul><ul><li>Use national-based arguments </li></ul><ul><li>Classify information </li></ul><ul><li>Refuse concessions </li></ul><ul><li>Delay negotitions </li></ul><ul><li>Use threats against neighbours </li></ul>Riparian A Riparian B
    4. 4. Deadlock COOPERATION Water Cooperation: Overcoming the deadlock ? Riparian A Riparian B
    5. 5. Water Cooperation: example from the Senegal Basin <ul><li>Who gets what water , when, where and how? </li></ul><ul><li>4 riparians: Senegal, Mali, Mauritania, Guinea </li></ul><ul><li>Well-established Senegal River Basin Organisation (1972) </li></ul><ul><li>Goals: shared development, concerted governance and conflict management </li></ul><ul><li>Jointly planned and owned infrastructures </li></ul><ul><li>Shared costs and benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Water and socio-economic development (food security, hydropower, navigation, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Senegal Basin: good example of transboundary water cooperation </li></ul>
    6. 6. Water cooperation: How to get there?
    7. 7. Water cooperation in the Northeastern African region Basin Initiative Main achievements Donors Niger Niger Basin Authority (9 riparians) <ul><li>One of the oldest intergovernmental in Africa (Convention signed in 1987) </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: integrated water management and economic development </li></ul><ul><li>Shared Vision and several investment projects </li></ul><ul><li>Joint basin-wide hydrological monitoring system </li></ul><ul><li>Active involvement of donors, but also civil society and environmentalists </li></ul>World Bank, UNDP, African Development Bank, Canada, European Commission, France, US Lake Chad Lake Chad Basin Commission (5 riparians) <ul><li>Old organisation – since 1964 [Failed to prevent environmental catastrophe] </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: regulation and planning of the uses of water and natural resources </li></ul><ul><li>Still focusing primarily in surface water, and not groundwater </li></ul><ul><li>Ambitious project of water diversion from Congo River to Lake Chad </li></ul>World Bank, UNDP, Denmark, European Commission, France, Nubian Aquifer Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System Project (all 4 riparians) <ul><li>Goal: rational and equitable management of the NSAS </li></ul><ul><li>In the first stages of cooperation (setting) </li></ul><ul><li>Not yet legal and insitutional framework neither projects </li></ul>International Atomic Energy Agency, UNDP, GEF, UNESCO Nile Nile Basin Initiative (all 10 riparians) <ul><li>NBI – provisional cooperative mechanism (since 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>Ambitious goals/ involves all 10 riparians / strong involvement of donors </li></ul><ul><li>Shared Vision and Subsidiary Action programs </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity-building and trust achieved </li></ul><ul><li>Not yet a legal framework or significant projects on-the-ground </li></ul><ul><li>Nevertheless, seen as a good model of cooperation </li></ul>World Bank, UNDP, African Development Bank, FAO, GEF, Canada, Denmark, European Commission, Finland, France, Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, UK, Germany, Japan, Switzerland, US Lake Victoria Lake Victoria Basin Commission (all 3 riparians) <ul><li>Legal Framework and river basin commission </li></ul><ul><li>Harmonisation of policies and laws on the management of the environment - Lake Victoria Environmental Management Project. </li></ul><ul><li>Development of some hydraulic infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative focus on development of economic activities (energy, fishing, industry, agriculture and tourism) </li></ul><ul><li>Information sharing and data </li></ul>East African Development Bank, World Bank, Sweden, Norway and France
    8. 8. <ul><li>In which cooperative initiative would I invest? In the Lake Victoria Basin Commission or the Nile Basin Initiative? </li></ul><ul><li>In which of these fields of activity (or others) would I engage giving financial support? And Why? </li></ul>EXERCISE 3: If I was a donor… Legal Framework
    9. 9. Water-Sharing vs. Benefit-Sharing?
    10. 10. Benefit-Sharing Paradigm Benefits to the river Benefits from the river Benefits because of the river Benefits beyond the river BENEFITS OF COOPERATION Environmental Social Economic Political Sadoff and Grey 2002, 2005 “ A focus on sharing the benefits derived from the use of water, rather than the allocation of water itself, provides far greater scope for identifying mutually beneficial cooperative actions”
    11. 11. Generating Regional Benefits <ul><li>Hydropower Production and Trade </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation Development </li></ul>
    12. 12. Water-Sharing: possible to avoid? <ul><ul><li>Energy supplies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power grid, pool and trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheap electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>River regulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction of water losses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sedimentation control </li></ul></ul>WATER-SHARING CONSTRAINTS: <ul><ul><li>Politically controverse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water abstractions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impacts on flows downstream </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Property rights and water allocations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water-sharing negotiations </li></ul></ul>BENEFITS OF IRRIGATION DEVELOPMENT <ul><ul><li>Suitable sites for irrigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased water productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient water utilisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased food production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional food market and trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce food & poverty gaps </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Benefit-Sharing or Water-Sharing? Benefit-sharing is the best approach Benefit-sharing is an intermediary solution Benefit-sharing is not a panacea for all basins Benefit-sharing is a smokescreen for status quo
    14. 14. Cooperation is as political as water BASIN Multiple stakeholders, positions, decision-making layers, approaches, strategies, complexities, ... Multilateral Donor Bilateral Donor Civil Society Riparian C Riparian B Riparian A
    15. 15. Thanks for your attention [email_address]