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Cascao Montpellier Benefit-Sharing Water-Sharing Nile

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Cascao Montpellier Benefit-Sharing Water-Sharing Nile

  1. 1. Ana Cascão King’s College of London/ LWRG <ul><li>From water-sharing </li></ul><ul><li>to benefit-sharing: </li></ul><ul><li>paradigm shift in </li></ul><ul><li>the Nile Basin? </li></ul><ul><li>13th World Water Congress </li></ul><ul><li>Montpellier, France </li></ul><ul><li>4 September 2008 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Two Paradigms of Cooperation Water-Sharing Benefit-sharing Complementary or Mutually Exclusive?
  3. 3. Squaring the Circle? Shift or Confluence? Water-Sharing Benefit-sharing Sharing costs Sharing responsibilities
  4. 4. Benefit-Sharing – The Concept Benefits to the river Benefits from the river Benefits because of the river Benefits beyond the river BENEFITS OF COOPERATION Environmental Social Economic Political Source: Sadoff and Grey 2002, 2005 “ A focus on sharing the benefits derived from the use of water, rather than the allocation of water itself, provides far greater scope for identifying mutually beneficial cooperative actions”
  5. 5. Benefit-Sharing or Water-Sharing? Benefit-sharing is the best approach Benefit-sharing is an intermediary solution Benefit-sharing is not a panacea for all basins Benefit-sharing is a smokescreen for status quo
  6. 6. Benefit-Sharing Approach – criticisms... Based on rational choice models Conceptual ambiguities Complex approach Neutralises existing asymmetries? Klaphake 2006 Difficult to implement in securitised basins Approach can be hijacked Should not replace water-sharing approach Need to“level the playing field” Phillips et al 2006 POLITICAL DYNAMICS QUANTIFICATION & DISTRIBUTION OF BENEFITS ? ?
  7. 7. Nile River Basin – Proving ground for the concept Political Economy Poverty Regional and internal conflicts Political instability No successful regional ec. integration Low levels of intra-basin trade Hydropolitics Asymmetric power relations Hydro-hegemonic regime Asymmetric water allocations Problematic water-sharing treaties Legal deadlock Securitised basin NBI Cooperation  Water-sharing + Benefit-sharing
  8. 8. NBI and BENEFIT-SHARING Environmental Benefits Direct Economic Benefits Regional Political Benefits Indirect Economic Benefits Source: SDBS/World Bank 2004 Nile Basin Initiative (1999) “ achieve sustainable socioeconomic development through the equitable utilization of, and benefit from , the common Nile Basin water resources” Socio-economic Development and Benefit Sharing Project (2005) “ to enhance the process of integration and cooperation to further socioeconomic development in the Nile Basin” “ explore alternative Nile development scenarios and benefit-sharing schemes”
  9. 9. “ Adrift on the Nile” <ul><li>REALM OF DISCOURSE </li></ul><ul><li>Concept widespread </li></ul><ul><li>“ Principles and mechanisms of benefit sharing are discussed widely at the policy, academic and grassroots levels” (NBI/WB 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperation Mantras </li></ul><ul><li>Useful for defusing conflictive public discourses </li></ul><ul><li>REALM OF POLITICS </li></ul><ul><li>Water-sharing dominates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>* Volumetric water allocation:main </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interest of upstream and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>downstream riparians </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* Security issue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sovereignty Mantras </li></ul><ul><li>Useful for defusing attention from power asymmetries and unfair agreements (hijacking) </li></ul>
  10. 10. B-S: TECHNICAL PERFORMANCE <ul><li>SDBS: No concrete ouputs </li></ul><ul><li>SDBS: Weak link with SVP/SAP Projects </li></ul><ul><li>Investment Projects: no clear principles and mechanisms for benefit-sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Documents: theoretical, abstract, no application </li></ul><ul><li>Unsastifactory performance; end of SDBS (2008) </li></ul>Source: Multi-Talent Consultancy 2008 QUANTIFICATION & DISTRIBUTION OF BENEFITS/COSTS  
  11. 11. B-S: CONCEPTUAL PERFORMANCE <ul><li>Benefit-sharing ( forefront ) and Water-sharing ( background ) </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate tool for the Nile Basin? </li></ul><ul><li>Constraints: </li></ul><ul><li>* Past agreements </li></ul><ul><li>* Status quo as a departure point </li></ul><ul><li>Concept Hijacked: </li></ul><ul><li>* benefits from “additional water resources” </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge: </li></ul><ul><li>* operationalise at multilateral level </li></ul>Source: Multi-Talent Consultancy 2008 Water-Sharing Benefit-sharing Benefits to the river Benefits from the river Benefits because of the river Benefits beyond the river BENEFITS OF COOPERATION 
  12. 12. Between a rock and a hard place? Not necessarily! Water-Sharing Benefit-sharing “ Highly problematic to focus on the two approaches at the same time” (Jägerskog 2006) Legal standstill Few developments/ Concept hijacked
  13. 13. <ul><li>Benefit-sharing approach must be complementary with water-sharing approach in the Nile Basin </li></ul><ul><li>Approaches-linkage and trade-offs </li></ul><ul><li>Test the benefit-sharing approach implementation in specific joint development project or infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Ethiopia-Sudan Power Interconnection Project </li></ul><ul><li>Strong incentives to the hegemonic downstream riparians to engage and compromise with the two approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Support to non-hegemonic upstream riparians (“level the playing field”) </li></ul>Some final thoughts
  14. 14. <ul><li>Thanks for </li></ul><ul><li>your attention! </li></ul>Benefit-sharing Water-sharing