Key issues: Groundwater Huge increases in use in India and China. California now having to regulate for the first time.
Tanzania: motorized pumps could benefit 2-4 million people (8-12% of rural households) . Analysis supported the targeting of investments looking at a range of factors from bio-physical suitability to local demand. Ghana Irrigation Policy updated to include support to non-formal irrigation
Precision surface irrigation starts with taking some field measurements which range from physical properties of the fields e.g. slope, size and also properties of the soil eg. infiltration. These properties are then used in a computer model. The model allows a user to explore any number of alternatives e.g. dividing the field into narrower fields, into shorter fields, increasing or decreasing flow rates, the duration of irrigation etc. Then laser grading the field. Once the field is graded then further land preparation takes place eg. furrows for row crops or border strips for broadcast crops. The user/farmer can use experience or any soil moisture sensor to determine whether or not to irrigate. Using this technology IWMI’s initial set of experiments conducted in Pakistan over the summer of 2014 indicated an increase in land productivity (kg/ha) of 11.11% and an increase in water productivity (kg/m3) of almost 12%.
Critical Issues: Floods and Droughts Over the past century, floods and droughts have accounted for 94% of all fatalities due to extreme weather events. Between May and August 2010 severe flooding in China affected more than 230 million people. In July 2012, after a prolonged drought, the United States Department of Agriculture declared natural disaster areas in more than 1,000 counties and 26 states, making it the largest natural disaster in America ever.
Click 1 Water is scarce, water is abundant, nowhere is there more evident than in the gangetic plain and coastal zones. There are vasts amount of water that flow through the area in the dry season and then small amounts during the dry season. In the rainy season farmers are constantly worried about floods and weather variability. Improving rice-fish production in the polder zone could help life millions of farmers out of poverty. A recent study CPWF survey showed that almost 80% of rural people in the polders of Bangladesh are living below the poverty line ($1.25/person/day), compared with the national average of about 40%.
This example shows how WLEbrings together the multi-disclinpinary expertise of the CG centers and local research agencies to address a true development challenge (improving livelihoods in the Southern Polder zone). Here IRRI, World Fish and IWMI work together with local parnter such as the Bangladesh Fisheries Research Insitute, BRAC and Insittute of Water Mangement to better understand how to improve water amangement to increase productivity and livelihoods rather than solely focusing on specific rice systems, water managemnet issues or fish productivity.
The integrated solution being explored in CPWF involves brackish water polyculture of shrimp plus fish (shrimp is highly risky, there are good options for polyculture to greatly increase profitability, even if the shrimp fail!) followed by rice plus fish. There are tradeoffs between water management for rice and aquaculture - the shrimp season needs to end early enough to allow drainage and leaching of salt prior to the optimum time for rice planting; the water depth needs to be shallow enough for the rice, especially early in the season, but the deeper the water the better for fish.
The use of high yielding aman varieties (HYV) coupled with good management can double yield, provided that water is managed to avoid stagnant flooding because HYVs are less tolerant to such flooding than traditional varieties. HYVs mature earlier, allowing an earlier rice harvest and earlier sowing of a dry season crop. Our on-farm trials have also demonstrated that the earlier maturity of HYV enables double- and triple-cropping with rice or with a combination of rice and high yielding or high value rabi crops (dry season non-rice crops such as maize, sunflower and water melon)
Major Impacts and potential System productivity can be increased from 3-6 tons per hectare to 11-19 tons per hectare, depending on location. The Planning Commission has directed the key departments to adopt the recommendations regarding improved maintenance and management of polders and better planning. Potential to reach millions of farmers with diversified solutions
Builds on existing expertise in drought monitoring in Asia
Will feature near-real time, weekly high-spatial resolution information on drought severity online
Will integrate remote sensing and ground data for better drought characterisation (vegetation indices, rainfall, soil, etc),
Aims to supports regionally coordinated drought mitigation efforts that can be further tailored to analysis at the national level
Needs to deliver timely and targeted messages to main economics sectors and communities that trigger certain anti-drought action(s) by decision makers
Needs to be continuously maintained and hence needs a business model.
Flood management. Here we consider not floods in isolation but at the patterns of floods and droughts and how excess floodwater through aquifer recharge upstream can be used for irrigation in the dry period. The key message is not to look at one problem in isolation but consider integrated solutions. And again taking a basin scale approach, here looking at the urban as well as rural areas.
Connecting to a grid (net-metering of solar pumps) provides farmers with the option of pumping water when needed and selling surplus electricity as a lucrative ‘cash crop’ Need long-term guaranteed buy-back option for surplus solar power at an attractive price Climate change predictions reduce the number of cloudy days - favours solar energy generation ‘Solar crop’ counters negative agricultural emissions ‘Solar crop’ can increase financial returns for India’s farmers – even more than the rice crop, without significant land footprint
Tushaar Shah, IWMI Tata Program
IWMI’s comprehensive assessment confirmed that around 3 of 4 cities across LAC, Asia and SSA, wastewater irrigation takes place. And usually with untreated wastewater. Thus, even where countries might report a 100% improvement in treatment capacity, the threat from direct and indirect reuse of untreated wastewater for the food chain continues on millions of ww irrigated hectares.
Assessing the extent of reuse, risks and benefits. Developing and testing low-cost options for microbial risk reduction (multi-barrier approach from farm to fork). Supporting international guidelines and capacity building.
Municipalities in developing countries spend 30-50% of their budget on solid waste management, although 30-60 % of the waste remains uncollected.
About 128 million septic tanks and latrines in India contribute to 80% of the pollution of its surface waters due to the lack of septage treatment facilities.
IWMI has currently identified over 150 RRR success stories and defined more than 20 promising business models for business schools and investors.
Business models for resource recovery and reuse. WLE policy brief. https://cgspace.cgiar.org/handle/10568/34858
This graph shows a typical annual flow hydrograph – with a peak wet season in February and a dry season in August (Southern Hemisphere). The environmental flow requirement is only about 50% during the wet season, but may be nearly 100 percent in the dry season when there is no flow to spare. The allocatable water is that amount, variable over the year, that can be allocated to different users and taken out the system without ill-effects. The box and whisker plots show the natural variability in each month. As can be seen the wet season is particularly variable.
World Bank. 2009 http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2013/05/28/000333037_20130528123844/Rendered/PDF/776220JRN020090ct0of0Male0Migration.pdf http://www.theguardian.com/global-development-professionals-network/2014/feb/04/global-food-security-old-age-timebomb
A local revolving fund is financed by the State that invests in this revolving funds through their "environmental corporations » to finance activities delivering ecosystem services, has invested in conservation agriculture by upland farmers. Revolving fund is managed directly by farmer’s organizations and the technical assistance (to ensure practices are correctly implemented) is provided by the CAR-the environmental authority.
Conservation tillage result in an increase in social benefits, but the expected gains will be modest. In the same sense a 17% of increase in net revenues in Fuquene farms could be not enough to overcome the possible aversion to risk of farmers (or other adoption barriers) and to encourage them to make an additional investment to cover initial extra costs of conservation agriculture (ie. cultivation of oat as cover crop). This fact may explain why this practice is not widely adopted in the Fuquene watershed (Currently there are about 1800 ha implementing these practices of 16933 ha under potato production in the watershed. JW mentions that even when interest rates are low most traditional farmers need at least 15- 20% or more advantage to make a change worthwhile (Byerlee et al.) Therefore the revolving fund provides credits to farmers willing to implement conservation tillage in their potato-based production systems, and since 2005 it has incorporated about 180 small farmers every year and now uses the capital of the fund at its maximum capacity.
One important outcome we have found is that Benefit Sharing Mechanisms are an institutional innovation whereby different groups of people agree on how water should be used and
Solutions for a water secure world
Cover slide option 1 TitleSolutions for a water secure world
International Water Management
17 March 2016
Photo: Hamish John Appleby/IWMI
IWMI: A multi-disciplinary approach
Manage risk and
resource use and
Promote gender and
sectors and borders
A world in which agriculture thrives within vibrant ecosystems, where
communities have higher incomes, improved food security and the ability to
continuously improve their lives
Informing the development of policies, institutions and investments toward
sustaining ecosystems and their services as a prerequisite for sustainable and
resilient agricultural intensification and improved livelihoods
WATER LAND AND ECOSYSTEM RESEARCH PROGRAM
1. Intensifying agricultural productivity sustainably
Photo: Hamish John Appleby/IWMI
Canal irrigated area Tank irrigated area Groundwater irrigated area
Pressure on the groundwater resource will continue
Source: Mukherji et al. 2013.
Tanzania – from bucket to pump –
facilitating entry into the irrigation market
Technological changes: laser grading for surface irrigation
Challenge: Inefficient flood irrigation,
high pumping costs
Approach: Pilot trials to modify laser
levelling equipment for laser grading -
locally available technology.
Solutions: Precision surface irrigation for
furrow and border strip. Combine with
soil moisture sensors
Outcome: An efficient surface irrigation
alternative to drip and sprinkler. 11%
increase in land productivity (kg/ha) and
12% increase in water productivity
Potential to increase water productivity by identifying
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct No
System productivity can be increased from 3-6 tons per
hectare to 11-19 tons per hectare, depending on location.
Planning Commission has directed key departments to
adopt improved planning, maintenance and management
Sub-watershed management recommendations taken up
by Blue-Gold project and Delta plan sponsored by DGIS.
Shrimp Rice + Fish
Integrated solutions, Bangladesh
What type and level of protection is appropriate?
2. Managing risk and resilience
Photos: dany13 (Flickr) - http://bit.ly/1USfx2X
2001 2012 2014
Insurance industry - looking for objective indicators for
drought and flood policies
Rethinking storage – buffering floods by aquifer recharge
Underground ‘taming’ of floods for irrigation (UTFI)
Source: Pavelic 2012
• India has 130,000 GW of
installed pumping capacity in
electric and diesel tube wells
• Shifting to a solar power
source could reduce India’s
Greenhouse Gas emissions
by up to 6%
• Threat of over-use
• Adopt a hybrid approach –
solar irrigation + feed in tariff
• Provides a ‘nexus’ solution
Agricultural livelihoods -
Energy - Water - Climate
Solar irrigation - the opportunity and the risk
Grid Connected Farmers:
• Replace existing pumps
• Offer guaranteed buy
back of surplus solar
power at an attractive
Non grid connected farmers:
• Form cooperative
• Common feed in-point for “pooled power”
• Guarantee buy-back
• Reduce utility transaction costs
The solution: redesigning the solar mission as a “cash crop”
Pressures of an urbanizing world intensifying
3. Enhancing efficient resource re-use
In and around three of four cities in developing and emerging
economies, farmers use polluted irrigation water for the
production of high-value crops
Wastewater irrigation is a reality
Waste to fertilizer – closing the nutrient loop
Industrial Regulation of
Intensively utilized basin
Industrial Regulation of
Multifunctional “green” basin
4. Benefiting from functioning ecosystems
Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep
Maintaining natural variability
Industrial Regulation of
Multifunctional “green” basin
Constructed wetlands in reservoirs
Increased diversity of habitat
Refuges for fish
Wet season: reservoir full
Dry season: reservoir drawn-down
Roots Extract for pharmaceuticals
Reclaiming saline soils – licorice innovation
Feminization and ageing of agricultural population
1 million Nepali migrants in 2004 - 97% were male.
World Bank. 2009
26% of Nepalese households are headed by females.
World’s farming population is ageing – average age approaching 60
Trends towards consolidation of land in China, Korea, Malaysia…
5. Promoting gender and social equity
Photo: Jim Holmes / IWMI
Mapping diverse perspectives
Photo: Liza Debevec / IWMI
Incorporating gendered perspectives on landscapes into
physically –based models via participatory 3-D mapping
6. Maximizing shared benefits across sectors and
Ferghana Valley – adapting to the realities of
transboundary basin created in post-Soviet times
• Numerous documents
governing water use
• Long history of cooperation –
agreements on property rights,
water sharing, basin linkages,
• Interrupted by establishment of
• Some cooperation continued at
• Knowledge base of agreements
established as basis for future
A range of mechanisms
• Allocation: e.g. Percentage allocation rather than absolute
• Adaptation: e.g. increasing storage potential – physical
‘buffer’; linking management of surface and groundwater
• Formalized communication: e.g. data exchange, notifications,
political consultations – e.g. on drought and flooding
• Broadening scope of cooperation – e.g. nexus considerations
and tradeoffs (Central Asia – low flows – increase in coal/gas
Adapted from Drieschcova, Giodarno, Fischhendler, 2008
Managing variability in transboundary basins
MANAGING RESOURCE VARIABILITY AND COMPETING USES
Sharing water benefits in the Andes
Institutional innovation to improve how
benefits of water are shared up-stream
Developed Benefit Sharing
Mechanism for Caneta Basin, funded
by IFAD and Peru Government.
Inputs and advice into to developing
new PES Law in Peru.
Support to implementing BSM in
more than 30 locations throughout
Better water management - the business case for the planet