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Solutions for a water secure world


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Presented by Jeremy Bird, IWMI Director General, at GIZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit), on March 16, 2016.

Published in: Environment
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Solutions for a water secure world

  1. 1. Cover slide option 1 TitleSolutions for a water secure world Jeremy Bird International Water Management Institute GIZ 17 March 2016 Photo: Hamish John Appleby/IWMI
  2. 2. IWMI: A multi-disciplinary approach 5 Remote sensing/ spatial analysts 22 Economists and agricultural economists 4 Ecologists 8 Soil scientists and pedologists 23 Social scientists and geographers 14 Irrigation and agricultural engineers 31 Specialists in ground/surface water Inter-disciplinary approach 5 Water quality and health specialists
  3. 3. IWMI Offices worldwide
  4. 4. Intensify agricultural productivity sustainably Manage risk and increase resilience Benefit from functioning ecosystems Enhance efficient resource use and re-use Promote gender and social equity Maximise shared benefits across sectors and borders
  5. 5. VISION A world in which agriculture thrives within vibrant ecosystems, where communities have higher incomes, improved food security and the ability to continuously improve their lives MISSION Informing the development of policies, institutions and investments toward sustaining ecosystems and their services as a prerequisite for sustainable and resilient agricultural intensification and improved livelihoods WATER LAND AND ECOSYSTEM RESEARCH PROGRAM
  6. 6. 1. Intensifying agricultural productivity sustainably Photo: Hamish John Appleby/IWMI
  7. 7. 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 45000 Irrigatedareain1000ha Canal irrigated area Tank irrigated area Groundwater irrigated area Canal Tanks Pressure on the groundwater resource will continue Source: Mukherji et al. 2013.
  8. 8. Tanzania – from bucket to pump – facilitating entry into the irrigation market
  9. 9. Technological changes: laser grading for surface irrigation (Pakistan) Challenge: Inefficient flood irrigation, high pumping costs Approach: Pilot trials to modify laser levelling equipment for laser grading - locally available technology. Solutions: Precision surface irrigation for furrow and border strip. Combine with soil moisture sensors Outcome: An efficient surface irrigation alternative to drip and sprinkler. 11% increase in land productivity (kg/ha) and 12% increase in water productivity (kg/m3)
  10. 10. Potential to increase water productivity by identifying high performers Doukalla Irrigation Scheme, Morocco
  11. 11. Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct No v Dec Dry season  System productivity can be increased from 3-6 tons per hectare to 11-19 tons per hectare, depending on location.  Planning Commission has directed key departments to adopt improved planning, maintenance and management of polders.  Sub-watershed management recommendations taken up by Blue-Gold project and Delta plan sponsored by DGIS. Wet season Shrimp Rice + Fish Integrated solutions, Bangladesh
  12. 12. What type and level of protection is appropriate? 2. Managing risk and resilience Photos: dany13 (Flickr) -
  13. 13. 2001 2012 2014 Insurance industry - looking for objective indicators for drought and flood policies
  14. 14. Rethinking storage – buffering floods by aquifer recharge Underground ‘taming’ of floods for irrigation (UTFI) Source: Pavelic 2012
  15. 15. • India has 130,000 GW of installed pumping capacity in electric and diesel tube wells • Shifting to a solar power source could reduce India’s Greenhouse Gas emissions by up to 6% • Threat of over-use • Adopt a hybrid approach – solar irrigation + feed in tariff • Provides a ‘nexus’ solution Agricultural livelihoods - Energy - Water - Climate Solar irrigation - the opportunity and the risk Photo: IWMI
  16. 16. SOLAR FARMER Grid Connected Farmers: • Replace existing pumps with solar • Offer guaranteed buy back of surplus solar power at an attractive price Non grid connected farmers: • Form cooperative • Common feed in-point for “pooled power” • Guarantee buy-back • Reduce utility transaction costs The solution: redesigning the solar mission as a “cash crop” opportunity
  17. 17. Hyderabad 2003-2014 Pressures of an urbanizing world intensifying 3. Enhancing efficient resource re-use
  18. 18. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Diluted wastewater or polluted water Untreated wastewater Groundwater Treated wastewater River Other surface water bodies Rainfed Irrigation canal Open drainage Numberofcities In and around three of four cities in developing and emerging economies, farmers use polluted irrigation water for the production of high-value crops Wastewater irrigation is a reality
  19. 19. New guidelines promoting simple technologies
  20. 20. Waste to fertilizer – closing the nutrient loop Co-composting
  21. 21. Natural basin Crops Hydropower Industrial Regulation of water balance Erosion control Climate regulationSoil formation Nutrient cycling Recreation Crops Hydropower Industrial Regulation of water balance Erosion control Climate regulationSoil formation Nutrient cycling Recreation Intensively utilized basin Crops Hydropower Industrial Regulation of water balance Erosion control Climate regulationSoil formation Nutrient cycling Recreation Multifunctional “green” basin Provisioning services Regulatory services Cultural services Supporting services 4. Benefiting from functioning ecosystems
  22. 22. 0.2 2.2 4.2 6.2 8.2 10.2 12.2 14.2 16.2 18.2 Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Natural flows Environmental flow requirement Maintaining natural variability Crops Hydropower Industrial Regulation of water balance Erosion control Climate regulationSoil formation Nutrient cycling Recreation Multifunctional “green” basin
  23. 23. Acknowledgements: Meynell, P-J. Constructed wetlands in reservoirs Objective: Increased diversity of habitat Refuges for fish Increased productivity Improved livelihoods Wet season: reservoir full Dry season: reservoir drawn-down
  24. 24. FodderReclaimed land Roots Extract for pharmaceuticals Reclaiming saline soils – licorice innovation
  25. 25. Feminization and ageing of agricultural population  1 million Nepali migrants in 2004 - 97% were male. World Bank. 2009  26% of Nepalese households are headed by females. 2011 Census  World’s farming population is ageing – average age approaching 60  Trends towards consolidation of land in China, Korea, Malaysia… 5. Promoting gender and social equity Photo: Jim Holmes / IWMI
  26. 26. Mapping diverse perspectives Photo: Liza Debevec / IWMI Incorporating gendered perspectives on landscapes into physically –based models via participatory 3-D mapping
  27. 27. 6. Maximizing shared benefits across sectors and borders
  28. 28. Ferghana Valley – adapting to the realities of transboundary basin created in post-Soviet times • Numerous documents governing water use • Long history of cooperation – agreements on property rights, water sharing, basin linkages, compensation mechanisms • Interrupted by establishment of new borders • Some cooperation continued at watercourse level • Knowledge base of agreements established as basis for future discussions
  29. 29. A range of mechanisms • Allocation: e.g. Percentage allocation rather than absolute volumes • Adaptation: e.g. increasing storage potential – physical ‘buffer’; linking management of surface and groundwater systems • Formalized communication: e.g. data exchange, notifications, political consultations – e.g. on drought and flooding • Broadening scope of cooperation – e.g. nexus considerations and tradeoffs (Central Asia – low flows – increase in coal/gas export Adapted from Drieschcova, Giodarno, Fischhendler, 2008 Managing variability in transboundary basins
  30. 30. MANAGING RESOURCE VARIABILITY AND COMPETING USES Sharing water benefits in the Andes Institutional innovation to improve how benefits of water are shared up-stream and downstream:  Developed Benefit Sharing Mechanism for Caneta Basin, funded by IFAD and Peru Government.  Inputs and advice into to developing new PES Law in Peru.  Support to implementing BSM in more than 30 locations throughout the Andes.
  31. 31. Better water management - the business case for the planet
  32. 32. Photo: Prashanth Vishwanathan / IWMI