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Global hydropolitics experiences

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Global hydropolitics experiences

  1. 1. Hydropolitics: Global experiences in transboundary river basins Ana Elisa Cascão - SIWI Presentation to Euphrates-Tigris Training Programme Stockholm, 18 May 2010
  2. 2. Structure of the Presentation <ul><li>First Part </li></ul><ul><li>Water everywhere? </li></ul><ul><li>What is Hydropolitics? </li></ul><ul><li>Water and Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Water and Power </li></ul><ul><li>Second Part </li></ul><ul><li>Water and Cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>How to operationalise cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Examples worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Final discussion </li></ul>
  3. 3. Water everywhere? Freshwater
  4. 4. Water everywhere? Surface water
  5. 5. Groundwater + Surface Water Small water... HYDROPOLITICS big politics!
  6. 6. Most of the ‘small water’ is transboundary
  7. 7. Hydropolitics: is there a definition? What can we see in this picture? Power Water Control Merowe Dam, Sudan
  8. 8. HYDROPOLITICS: ‘ who gets what water , when, where and how?’
  9. 9. Water: a complex resource... Natural resource Social resource Economic resource Cultural resource Political resource
  10. 10. Water: a complex resource...
  11. 11. Water: can be source of conflict Quantity Infrastructure Quality Joint management Hydropower Border issues Irrigation Flood control ...
  12. 12. Conflictive Events by Issue Area Water sharing/allocation is a main source of conflict! Wolf et al. 2003
  13. 13. Sharing the Jordan River Basin + Aquifers <ul><li>Who gets what water , </li></ul><ul><li>when, where and how? </li></ul><ul><li>5 riparians: Israel, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon and Palestine </li></ul><ul><li>Unequal allocation and utilisation of water resources </li></ul>Phillips 2007
  14. 14. Jordan Valley: Example of Water conflict <ul><li>Several conflict events ( militarised/armed )/Very limited cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Asymmetric power relations among riparians </li></ul><ul><li>Jordan Basin: Extreme case of water-related conflict </li></ul>
  15. 15. Asymmetric Power Relations Geography Material power Bargaining power Ideational power 4 PILLARS OF POWER Framework of Hydro-Hegemony Zeitoun and Warner 2006
  16. 16. GEOGRAPHICAL POWER <ul><li>Riparian Position: </li></ul><ul><li>Downstream </li></ul><ul><li>Midstream </li></ul><ul><li>Upstream </li></ul><ul><li>Geographical Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Contribution to river flow </li></ul><ul><li>Potential for water utilisation </li></ul><ul><li>Suitability for hydraulic infrastructure </li></ul>
  17. 17. MATERIAL POWER Economic development Military power Political stability and influence
  18. 18. BARGAINING POWER: in interstate relations and negotiations WHO CONTROLS THE NEGOTIATIONS? WHO CONTROLS THE AGREEMENTS? WHO CONTROLS THE NUMBERS? WHO CONTROLS THE AGENDA? WHO CONTROLS THE LEGITIMACY? WHO PLAYS BETTER WITH INTERNATIONAL LAW? WHO HAS ACCESS TO INVESTMENT?
  19. 19. IDEATIONAL POWER: Power to influence perceptions Asymmetric Knowledge Sanctioned Discourse Incentives Playing with time Silent Diplomacy/ Cooperation
  20. 20. Asymmetric power in MENA river basins EGYPT SUDAN ETHIOPIA + Equatorial countries Geography Geography Geography Material power Material power Material power Bargaining power Bargaining power Bargaining power Ideational power Ideational power Ideational power ISRAEL Bargaining power Ideational power JORDAN Geography Material power Bargaining power Ideational power PALESTINE Geography Material power Bargaining power Ideational power Geography Material power Lower Jordan River Basin Nile River Basin
  21. 21. How do we move from a situation of conflict to cooperation?
  22. 22. Cooperation continuum Sadoff and Grey in Andersen, 2005 Indus Mekong Rhine Orange Senegal
  23. 23. How to operationalise cooperation?
  24. 24. Water Agreeements <ul><li>Formal negotiations (bilateral or multilateral) </li></ul><ul><li>Can be specific or a framework </li></ul><ul><li>Based on principles or needs </li></ul><ul><li>Can [or not] include water allocations </li></ul><ul><li>Might focus on benefits (e.g. related to hydraulic project), instead of the water itself </li></ul>Jordan-Israeli Peace Agreement (1994) Egypt-Sudan Water Agreement (1959) SADC Shared Watercourse Systems Protocol (2001) Convention of the Niger Basin Authority (1980)
  25. 25. Agreements by Issue Area
  26. 26. River Basin Organisations
  27. 27. River Basin Organisations OMVS (1972) LCBC (1964) NBA (1980) ORASECOM (2000) ZAMCOM (2004) LIMCOM (2003) OKACOM (1994) CICOS (1999) LVBC (2005) NBI (1999) NBC ( ? ) TPTC (2002) IncoMaputo (?)
  28. 28. Joint projects and joint management JOINT Bilateral Multilateral
  29. 29. Examples of bilateral joint projects <ul><li>Maguga Dam – Incomati River </li></ul><ul><li>(South Africa/Swaziland) </li></ul><ul><li>Itaipu Dam – Paraná/La Plata River </li></ul><ul><li>(Brazil/Paraguay) </li></ul>Bi-national initiative Hydropower & Irrigation Two agreements (1992): Joint Water Commission + Joint Development of Water Resources (7 dams) Consultation: Tripartite Agreement (incl.Mozambique) KOBWA: Komati Basin Water Authority Bi-national project and ownership( 50%/50%) Hydropower mainly (+++) Agreement (1973): Itaipu Treaty No Consultation: Argentina (La Plata) Agreement (1979): Tripartite Agreement ITAIPU Binacional
  30. 30. Senegal River Basin: Multilateral joint management & projects <ul><li>4 riparians: Senegal, Mali, Mauritania, [Guinea] </li></ul><ul><li>Well-established Senegal River Basin Organisation (1972) </li></ul><ul><li>Goals: shared development, joint governance and conflict management </li></ul><ul><li>Jointly planned and owned infrastructures </li></ul><ul><li>Shared costs and Shared benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Water and socio-economic development (food security, hydropower, navigation, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>Senegal Basin: good example of transboundary water cooperation </li></ul>
  31. 31. Manantali Dam - a joint project: shared benefits and shared costs
  32. 32. ‘ Making the pie bigger’: Generating and sharing regional benefits TWO-Analysis, SIWI 2008
  33. 33. Positive-Sum Outcome: All could get a bigger ‘share’ of the pie <ul><li>Hydropower Production and Trade </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural Production </li></ul>Environmental Services
  34. 34. <ul><li>“ A focus on sharing the benefits derived from the use of water, rather than the allocation of water itself, provides far greater scope for identifying mutually beneficial cooperative actions” </li></ul><ul><li>(Sadoff and Grey 2005) </li></ul>Nile
  35. 35. Thanks! [email_address]

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